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The role of patient perception of crowding in the determination of real-time patient satisfaction at Emergency Department.

Chet Schrader, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:15
Related Articles

The role of patient perception of crowding in the determination of real-time patient satisfaction at Emergency Department.

Int J Qual Health Care. 2017 Oct 01;29(5):722-727

Authors: Wang H, Kline JA, Jackson BE, Robinson RD, Sullivan M, Holmes M, Watson KA, Cowden CD, Phillips JL, Schrader CD, Leuck J, Zenarosa NR

Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the associations between real-time overall patient satisfaction and Emergency Department (ED) crowding as determined by patient percepton and crowding estimation tool score in a high-volume ED.
Design: A prospective observational study.
Setting: A tertiary acute hospital ED and a Level 1 trauma center.
Participants: ED patients.
Intervention(s): Crowding status was measured by two crowding tools [National Emergency Department Overcrowding Scale (NEDOCS) and Severely overcrowded-Overcrowded-Not overcrowded Estimation Tool (SONET)] and patient perception of crowding surveys administered at discharge.
Main outcome measure(s): ED crowding and patient real-time satisfaction.
Results: From 29 November 2015 through 11 January 2016, we enrolled 1345 participants. We observed considerable agreement between the NEDOCS and SONET assessment of ED crowding (bias = 0.22; 95% limits of agreement (LOAs): -1.67, 2.12). However, agreement was more variable between patient perceptions of ED crowding with NEDOCS (bias = 0.62; 95% LOA: -5.85, 7.09) and SONET (bias = 0.40; 95% LOA: -5.81, 6.61). Compared to not overcrowded, there were overall inverse associations between ED overcrowding and patient satisfaction (Patient perception OR = 0.49, 95% confidence limit (CL): 0.38, 0.63; NEDOCS OR = 0.78, 95% CL: 0.65, 0.95; SONET OR = 0.82, 95% CL: 0.69, 0.98).
Conclusions: While heterogeneity exists in the degree of agreement between objective and patient perceived assessments of ED crowding, in our study we observed that higher degrees of ED crowding at admission might be associated with lower real-time patient satisfaction.

PMID: 28992161 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Optimal Measurement Interval for Emergency Department Crowding Estimation Tools.

Chet Schrader, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:15
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Optimal Measurement Interval for Emergency Department Crowding Estimation Tools.

Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Nov;70(5):632-639.e4

Authors: Wang H, Ojha RP, Robinson RD, Jackson BE, Shaikh SA, Cowden CD, Shyamanand R, Leuck J, Schrader CD, Zenarosa NR

Abstract
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Emergency department (ED) crowding is a barrier to timely care. Several crowding estimation tools have been developed to facilitate early identification of and intervention for crowding. Nevertheless, the ideal frequency is unclear for measuring ED crowding by using these tools. Short intervals may be resource intensive, whereas long ones may not be suitable for early identification. Therefore, we aim to assess whether outcomes vary by measurement interval for 4 crowding estimation tools.
METHODS: Our eligible population included all patients between July 1, 2015, and June 30, 2016, who were admitted to the JPS Health Network ED, which serves an urban population. We generated 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-hour ED crowding scores for each patient, using 4 crowding estimation tools (National Emergency Department Overcrowding Scale [NEDOCS], Severely Overcrowded, Overcrowded, and Not Overcrowded Estimation Tool [SONET], Emergency Department Work Index [EDWIN], and ED Occupancy Rate). Our outcomes of interest included ED length of stay (minutes) and left without being seen or eloped within 4 hours. We used accelerated failure time models to estimate interval-specific time ratios and corresponding 95% confidence limits for length of stay, in which the 1-hour interval was the reference. In addition, we used binomial regression with a log link to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and corresponding confidence limit for left without being seen.
RESULTS: Our study population comprised 117,442 patients. The time ratios for length of stay were similar across intervals for each crowding estimation tool (time ratio=1.37 to 1.30 for NEDOCS, 1.44 to 1.37 for SONET, 1.32 to 1.27 for EDWIN, and 1.28 to 1.23 for ED Occupancy Rate). The RRs of left without being seen differences were also similar across intervals for each tool (RR=2.92 to 2.56 for NEDOCS, 3.61 to 3.36 for SONET, 2.65 to 2.40 for EDWIN, and 2.44 to 2.14 for ED Occupancy Rate).
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest limited variation in length of stay or left without being seen between intervals (1 to 4 hours) regardless of which of the 4 crowding estimation tools were used. Consequently, 4 hours may be a reasonable interval for assessing crowding with these tools, which could substantially reduce the burden on ED personnel by requiring less frequent assessment of crowding.

PMID: 28688771 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Chest Pain Risk Scores Can Reduce Emergent Cardiac Imaging Test Needs With Low Major Adverse Cardiac Events Occurrence in an Emergency Department Observation Unit.

Chet Schrader, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:15
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Chest Pain Risk Scores Can Reduce Emergent Cardiac Imaging Test Needs With Low Major Adverse Cardiac Events Occurrence in an Emergency Department Observation Unit.

Crit Pathw Cardiol. 2016 12;15(4):145-151

Authors: Wang H, Watson K, Robinson RD, Domanski KH, Umejiego J, Hamblin L, Overstreet SE, Akin AM, Hoang S, Shrivastav M, Collyer M, Krech RN, Schrader CD, Zenarosa NR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare and evaluate the performance of the HEART, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE), and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) scores to predict major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rates after index placement in an emergency department observation unit (EDOU) and to determine the need for observation unit initiation of emergent cardiac imaging tests, that is, noninvasive cardiac stress tests and invasive coronary angiography.
METHODS: A prospective observational single center study was conducted from January 2014 through June 2015. EDOU chest pain patients were included. HEART, GRACE, and TIMI scores were categorized as low (HEART ≤ 3, GRACE ≤ 108, and TIMI ≤1) versus elevated based on thresholds suggested in prior studies. Patients were followed for 6 months postdischarge. The results of emergent cardiac imaging tests, EDOU length of stay (LOS), and MACE occurrences were compared. Student t test was used to compare groups with continuous data, and χ testing was used for categorical data analysis.
RESULTS: Of 986 patients, emergent cardiac imaging tests were performed on 62%. A majority of patients were scored as low risk by all tools (85% by HEART, 81% by GRACE, and 80% by TIMI, P < 0.05). The low-risk patients had few abnormal cardiac imaging test results as compared with patients scored as intermediate to high risk (1% vs. 11% in HEART, 1% vs. 9% in TIMI, and 2% vs. 4% in GRACE, P < 0.05). The average LOS was 33 hours for patients with emergent cardiac imaging tests performed and 25 hours for patients without (P < 0.05). MACE occurrence rate demonstrated no significant difference regardless of whether tests were performed emergently (0.31% vs. 0.97% in HEART, 0.27% vs. 0.95% in TIMI, and 0% vs. 0.81% in GRACE, P > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Chest pain risk stratification via clinical decision tool scores can minimize the need for emergent cardiac imaging tests with less than 1% MACE occurrence, especially when the HEART score is used.

PMID: 27846006 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Roles of disease severity and post-discharge outpatient visits as predictors of hospital readmissions.

Chet Schrader, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:15
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Roles of disease severity and post-discharge outpatient visits as predictors of hospital readmissions.

BMC Health Serv Res. 2016 10 10;16(1):564

Authors: Wang H, Johnson C, Robinson RD, Nejtek VA, Schrader CD, Leuck J, Umejiego J, Trop A, Delaney KA, Zenarosa NR

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Risks prediction models of 30-day all-cause hospital readmissions are multi-factorial. Severity of illness (SOI) and risk of mortality (ROM) categorized by All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups (APR-DRG) seem to predict hospital readmission but lack large sample validation. Effects of risk reduction interventions including providing post-discharge outpatient visits remain uncertain. We aim to determine the accuracy of using SOI and ROM to predict readmission and further investigate the role of outpatient visits in association with hospital readmission.
METHODS: Hospital readmission data were reviewed retrospectively from September 2012 through June 2015. Patient demographics and clinical variables including insurance type, homeless status, substance abuse, psychiatric problems, length of stay, SOI, ROM, ICD-10 diagnoses and medications prescribed at discharge, and prescription ratio at discharge (number of medications prescribed divided by number of ICD-10 diagnoses) were analyzed using logistic regression. Relationships among SOI, type of hospital visits, time between hospital visits, and readmissions were also investigated.
RESULTS: A total of 6011 readmissions occurred from 55,532 index admissions. The adjusted odds ratios of SOI and ROM predicting readmissions were 1.31 (SOI: 95 % CI 1.25-1.38) and 1.09 (ROM: 95 % CI 1.05-1.14) separately. Ninety percent (5381/6011) of patients were readmitted from the Emergency Department (ED) or Urgent Care Center (UCC). Average time interval from index discharge date to ED/UCC visit was 9 days in both the no readmission and readmission groups (p > 0.05). Similar hospital readmission rates were noted during the first 10 days from index discharge regardless of whether post-index discharge patient clinic visits occurred when time-to-event analysis was performed.
CONCLUSIONS: SOI and ROM significantly predict hospital readmission risk in general. Most readmissions occurred among patients presenting for ED/UCC visits after index discharge. Simply providing early post-discharge follow-up clinic visits does not seem to prevent hospital readmissions.

PMID: 27724889 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A Derivation and Validation Study of an Early Blood Transfusion Needs Score for Severe Trauma Patients.

Chet Schrader, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:15
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A Derivation and Validation Study of an Early Blood Transfusion Needs Score for Severe Trauma Patients.

J Clin Med Res. 2016 Aug;8(8):591-7

Authors: Wang H, Umejiego J, Robinson RD, Schrader CD, Leuck J, Barra M, Buca S, Shedd A, Bui A, Zenarosa NR

Abstract
BACKGROUND: There is no existing adequate blood transfusion needs determination tool that Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel can use for prehospital blood transfusion initiation. In this study, a simple and pragmatic prehospital blood transfusion needs scoring system was derived and validated.
METHODS: Local trauma registry data were reviewed retrospectively from 2004 through 2013. Patients were randomly assigned to derivation and validation cohorts. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the independent approachable risks associated with early blood transfusion needs in the derivation cohort in which a scoring system was derived. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operational characteristic (AUC) were calculated and compared using both the derivation and validation data.
RESULTS: A total of 24,303 patients were included with 12,151 patients in the derivation and 12,152 patients in the validation cohorts. Age, penetrating injury, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) were risks predictive of early blood transfusion needs. An early blood transfusion needs score was derived. A score > 5 indicated risk of early blood transfusion need with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 80%. A sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 80% were also found in the validation study and their AUC showed no statistically significant difference (AUC of the derivation = 0.87 versus AUC of the validation = 0.86, P > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: An early blood transfusion scoring system was derived and internally validated to predict severe trauma patients requiring blood transfusion during prehospital or initial emergency department resuscitation.

PMID: 27429680 [PubMed]

The role of charity care and primary care physician assignment on ED use in homeless patients.

Chet Schrader, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:15
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The role of charity care and primary care physician assignment on ED use in homeless patients.

Am J Emerg Med. 2015 Aug;33(8):1006-11

Authors: Wang H, Nejtek VA, Zieger D, Robinson RD, Schrader CD, Phariss C, Ku J, Zenarosa NR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Homeless patients are a vulnerable population with a higher incidence of using the emergency department (ED) for noncrisis care. Multiple charity programs target their outreach toward improving the health of homeless patients, but few data are available on the effectiveness of reducing ED recidivism. The aim of this study is to determine whether inappropriate ED use for nonemergency care may be reduced by providing charity insurance and assigning homeless patients to a primary care physician (PCP) in an outpatient clinic setting.
METHODS: A retrospective medical records review of homeless patients presenting to the ED and receiving treatment between July 2013 and June 2014 was completed. Appropriate vs inappropriate use of the ED was determined using the New York University ED Algorithm. The association between patients with charity care coverage, PCP assignment status, and appropriate vs inappropriate ED use was analyzed and compared.
RESULTS: Following New York University ED Algorithm standards, 76% of all ED visits were deemed inappropriate with approximately 77% of homeless patients receiving charity care and 74% of patients with no insurance seeking noncrisis health care in the ED (P=.112). About 50% of inappropriate ED visits and 43.84% of appropriate ED visits occurred in patients with a PCP assignment (P=.019).
CONCLUSIONS: Both charity care homeless patients and those without insurance coverage tend to use the ED for noncrisis care resulting in high rates of inappropriate ED use. Simply providing charity care and/or PCP assignment does not seem to sufficiently reduce inappropriate ED use in homeless patients.

PMID: 26001738 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Use of the SONET score to evaluate Urgent Care Center overcrowding: a prospective pilot study.

Chet Schrader, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:15
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Use of the SONET score to evaluate Urgent Care Center overcrowding: a prospective pilot study.

BMJ Open. 2015 Apr 14;5(4):e006860

Authors: Wang H, Robinson RD, Cowden CD, Gorman VA, Cook CD, Gicheru EK, Schrader CD, Jayswal RD, Zenarosa NR

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To derive a tool to determine Urgent Care Center (UCC) crowding and investigate the association between different levels of UCC overcrowding and negative patient care outcomes.
DESIGN: Prospective pilot study.
SETTING: Single centre study in the USA.
PARTICIPANTS: 3565 patients who registered at UCC during the 21-day study period were included. Patients who had no overcrowding statuses estimated due to incomplete collection of operational variables at the time of registration were excluded in this study. 3139 patients were enrolled in the final data analysis.
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: A crowding estimation tool (SONET: Severely overcrowded, Overcrowded and Not overcrowded Estimation Tool) was derived using the linear regression analysis. The average length of stay (LOS) in UCC patients and the number of left without being seen (LWBS) patients were calculated and compared under the three different levels of UCC crowding.
RESULTS: Four independent operational variables could affect the UCC overcrowding score including the total number of patients, the number of results pending for patients, the number of patients in the waiting room and the longest time a patient was stationed in the waiting room. In addition, UCC overcrowding was associated with longer average LOS (not overcrowded: 133±76 min, overcrowded: 169±79 min, and severely overcrowded: 196±87 min, p<0.001) and an increased number of LWBS patients (not overcrowded: 0.28±0.69 patients, overcrowded: 0.64±0.98, and severely overcrowded: 1.00±0.97).
CONCLUSIONS: The overcrowding estimation tool (SONET) derived in this study might be used to determine different levels of crowding in a high volume UCC setting. It also showed that UCC overcrowding might be associated with negative patient care outcomes.

PMID: 25872940 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Use of the SONET Score to Evaluate High Volume Emergency Department Overcrowding: A Prospective Derivation and Validation Study.

Charles Huggins, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:15
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Use of the SONET Score to Evaluate High Volume Emergency Department Overcrowding: A Prospective Derivation and Validation Study.

Emerg Med Int. 2015;2015:401757

Authors: Wang H, Robinson RD, Garrett JS, Bunch K, Huggins CA, Watson K, Daniels J, Banks B, D'Etienne JP, Zenarosa NR

Abstract
Background. The accuracy and utility of current Emergency Department (ED) crowding estimation tools remain uncertain in EDs with high annual volumes. We aimed at deriving a more accurate tool to evaluate overcrowding in a high volume ED setting and determine the association between ED overcrowding and patient care outcomes. Methods. A novel scoring tool (SONET: Severely overcrowded-Overcrowded-Not overcrowded Estimation Tool) was developed and validated in two EDs with both annual volumes exceeding 100,000. Patient care outcomes including the number of left without being seen (LWBS) patients, average length of ED stay, ED 72-hour returns, and mortality were compared under the different crowding statuses. Results. The total number of ED patients, the number of mechanically ventilated patients, and patient acuity levels were independent risk factors affecting ED overcrowding. SONET was derived and found to better differentiate severely overcrowded, overcrowded, and not overcrowded statuses with similar results validated externally. In addition, SONET scores correlated with increased length of ED stay, number of LWBS patients, and ED 72-hour returns. Conclusions. SONET might be a better fit to determine high volume ED overcrowding. ED overcrowding negatively impacts patient care operations and often produces poor patient perceptions of standardized care delivery.

PMID: 26167302 [PubMed]

The inaccuracy of determining overcrowding status by using the national ED overcrowding study tool.

Charles Huggins, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:15
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The inaccuracy of determining overcrowding status by using the national ED overcrowding study tool.

Am J Emerg Med. 2014 Oct;32(10):1230-6

Authors: Wang H, Robinson RD, Bunch K, Huggins CA, Watson K, Jayswal RD, White NC, Banks B, Zenarosa NR

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) crowding has become more common, and perceptions of crowding vary among different health care providers. The National Emergency Department Overcrowding Study (NEDOCS) tool is the most commonly used tool to estimate ED crowding but still uncertain of its reliability in different ED settings.
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to determine the accuracy of using the NEDOCS tool to evaluate overcrowding in an extremely high-volume ED and assess the reliability and consistency of different providers' perceptions of ED crowding.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a 2-phase study. In phase 1, ED crowding was determined by the NEDOCS tool. The ED length of stay and number of patients who left without being seen were analyzed. In phase 2, a survey of simulated ED census scenarios was completed by different providers. The interrater and intrarater agreements of ED crowding were tested.
RESULTS: In phase 1, the subject ED was determined to be overcrowded more than 75% of the time in which nearly 50% was rated as severely overcrowded by the NEDOCS tool. No statistically significant difference was found in terms of the average length of stay and the number of left without being seen patients under different crowding categories. In phase 2, 88 surveys were completed. A moderate level of agreement between health care providers was reached (κ = 0.5402, P < .0001). Test-retest reliability among providers was high (r = 0.8833, P = .0007). The strength of agreement between study groups and the NEDOCS was weak (κ = 0.3695, P < .001).
CONCLUSION: Using the NEDOCS tool to determine ED crowding might be inaccurate in an extremely high-volume ED setting.

PMID: 25176566 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Midcarpal Instability: A Comprehensive Review and Update.

Bryan Ming, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:14
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Midcarpal Instability: A Comprehensive Review and Update.

Hand Clin. 2015 Aug;31(3):487-93

Authors: Niacaris T, Ming BW, Lichtman DM

Abstract
Midcarpal instability has been well described as a clinical entity but the pathokinematics and pathologic anatomy continue to be poorly understood. This article presents a comprehensive review of the existing knowledge and literature-based evidence for the diagnosis and management of the various entities comprising midcarpal instability. It discusses the limitations of the current understanding of midcarpal instability and proposes new directions for furthering knowledge of the causes and treatment of midcarpal instability and wrist pathomechanics in general.

PMID: 26205710 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Surgical Techniques for the Management of Midcarpal Instability.

Bryan Ming, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:14
Related Articles

Surgical Techniques for the Management of Midcarpal Instability.

J Wrist Surg. 2014 Aug;3(3):171-4

Authors: Ming BW, Niacaris T, Lichtman DM

Abstract
Palmar midcarpal instability (PMCI) is an uncommon and poorly understood disorder. Its etiology is believed to be due to traumatic or congenital laxity of the ligaments (volar and dorsal) that stabilize the proximal row. This laxity results in hypermobility of the proximal carpal row and unphysiologic coupling of the midcarpal joint. Clinically, the condition is manifested by a painful clunk with ulnar and radial wrist deviation. The purpose of this article is to chronicle our personal experience with this condition and to review our current treatment recommendations and outcomes.

PMID: 27054049 [PubMed]

Asymptomatic Migration of a Kirschner Wire from the Proximal Aspect of the Humerus to the Thoracic Cavity: A Case Report.

Brian Webb, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:14
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Asymptomatic Migration of a Kirschner Wire from the Proximal Aspect of the Humerus to the Thoracic Cavity: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect. 2016 Jul-Sep;6(3):e77

Authors: Pientka WF, Bates CM, Webb BG

Abstract
CASE: A 78-year-old man presented with an open fracture of the proximal aspect of the humerus and an axillary artery laceration; the fracture was treated provisionally with Kirschner wires (K-wires). Forty-five days postoperatively, he presented with pin prominence at the lateral aspect of the arm, and was incidentally noted to have migration of a separate K-wire to the left lung. He underwent successful thoracotomy and lung wedge resection for wire removal.
CONCLUSION: K-wires used in the fixation of fractures of the proximal aspect of the humerus may migrate into the thoracic cavity. No modification of this technique, including the use of threaded, terminally bent, or external pins that are visibly secured, eliminates the potential for devastating complications.

PMID: 29252654 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Risk factors in total joint arthroplasty: comparison of infection rates in patients with different socioeconomic backgrounds.

Brian Webb, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:14
Related Articles

Risk factors in total joint arthroplasty: comparison of infection rates in patients with different socioeconomic backgrounds.

Orthopedics. 2008 May;31(5):445

Authors: Webb BG, Lichtman DM, Wagner RA

Abstract
Infection after total joint arthroplasty is a serious complication. Several risk factors have been shown to increase the risk of total joint infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether socioeconomic background was a risk factor for infection in primary total joint arthroplasty. A retrospective chart review was conducted over a 4-year period on a single surgeon's split practice between private patients with mostly private insurance and Medicare and county based patients with predominately indigent county health coverage and Medicaid. An infection rate was calculated for each population in both primary total knee and hip arthroplasty. The two populations were statistically analyzed for differences in age, preoperative diagnoses, and socioeconomic background. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing an increased risk of infection in total joint arthroplasty based on socioeconomic background.

PMID: 19292321 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Scalp.

Brett Shirley, DDS, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:13
Related Articles

Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Scalp.

J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2016 Jul;15(Suppl 2):245-8

Authors: Shirley BM, Kang DR, Sakamoto AH

Abstract
Solitary fibrous tumors are an uncommon slow growing benign neoplasm originally described as a pleural neoplasm but can also be found in the lung, mediastinum, peritoneum, or any other sites including the head and neck. Malignant solitary fibrous tumors (MSFT) are extremely rare and only few cases have been published in the literature. There have been 19 cases reported of MSFT in the head and neck, but there are no reports of MSFT located within the scalp in the English language literature. We present a case of MSFT arising in the scalp and describe our experience with the clinical presentation, surgical management, and outcome in this pathological condition.

PMID: 27408445 [PubMed]

What dentists should know about sickle cell disease.

Bill Devine, DMD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:13
Related Articles

What dentists should know about sickle cell disease.

Tex Dent J. 2013 Nov;130(11):1123-7

Authors: Devine BP

Abstract
The medical history should be a communication between the patient and the dentist. A good history will reveal a patient's medical problems,concerns, ideas, and expectations. Understanding medical conditions on a patient's medical history is of up most importance in providing the patient with the best possible standard of care. Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that affects red blood cells. Normal red blood cells contain hemoglobin A. People with sickle cell disease have red blood cells containing mostly hemoglobin S, an abnormal type of hemoglobin. These mutated sickle cells do not have the smooth motion needed for oxygenation and deoxygenation. One of the main concerns in sickle cell disease is the reversible extreme pain episodes called “sickle cell crisis.”Pain episodes occur when sickle cells clog small vessels, depriving the body of adequate blood and oxygen. Treatment of the sickle cell patient should be a team approach between dentist,patient, and physician. Dental treatments should be conservative and stress free for the patient.Prevention of dental disease and infections are of the up most importance to the sickle cell patient.If your patient has sickle cell disease, know about it and talk to your patient about the disease.Maintaining excellent oral health to decrease the possibility of oral infections will ensure the best care for these patients.Key words: communication, sickle cell disease (SCD), sickle cell anemia (SCA), blood inherited disorder, sickle cell trait, crisis, African Americans, deoxygenation, hemoglobin,supporting dentist, prophylactic antibiotics, and infection.

PMID: 24400417 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Are you ready for the betel nut?

Bill Devine, DMD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:13
Related Articles

Are you ready for the betel nut?

Tex Dent J. 2012 Aug;129(8):767-9

Authors: Devine BP

Abstract
As Texas becomes more diverse in its urban populations, dentists should educate themselves on their diverse patient base, including its cultures and cultural habits. The betel nut is chewed by more than 10% of the world's population and the oral care of these patients present many unique challenges. Other cultural beliefs can represent years of ideas passed on from one generation to another and need to be respected. Education is an excellent way of changing harmful cultural habits.

PMID: 22988662 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Reaching the Texas dental goals of healthy people 2010.

Bill Devine, DMD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:13
Related Articles

Reaching the Texas dental goals of healthy people 2010.

Tex Dent J. 2011 Dec;128(12):1255-9

Authors: Devine B

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has promoted Healthy People 2010, which is a set of national health objectives for the nation to achieve over the first decade of the new century (1). Texas has not yet met its target of 50 percent of 8-year-old children with dental sealants having been placed on their 6-year molars, which is one of the Healthy People 2010 goals. An assessment of the dental needs of children in Tarrant County, Texas, was initiated by the JPS Health Network (named after John Peter Smith). The JPS Health Network established the Healthy Smiles program to address the dental needs of the students in this county because a school based dental sealant program would be effective in reducing dental decay.
METHODS: Approved Title One elementary schools in Tarrant County were scheduled for dental screenings, education, and fluoride and dental sealant applications. Students were given visual dental screenings and classified as to future dental needs. First grade students received fluoride varnish and second and third grade students received fluoride and dental sealants.
RESULTS: For the 2010-2011 school year: A total of 28,322 students were seen by dental professionals from the JPS Health Network; 8,348 dental sealants were placed; and 11,825 fluoride applications were given by dental staff.
CONCLUSIONS: The JPS Health Network Healthy Smiles Program proved to be an effective way to deliver oral preventive care and dental education to a large number of low-income students.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Dental caries prevention programs such as Healthy Smiles could help Texas reach its goals for improved oral health for the children of Texas.

PMID: 22375443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A population-based study of incidence and patient survival of small cell carcinoma in the United States, 1992-2010.

Bassam Ghabach, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 07:28
Related Articles

A population-based study of incidence and patient survival of small cell carcinoma in the United States, 1992-2010.

BMC Cancer. 2015 Mar 27;15:185

Authors: Dores GM, Qubaiah O, Mody A, Ghabach B, Devesa SS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In contrast to the well-described epidemiology and behavior of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), little is known about extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC).
METHODS: Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program (1992-2010), we calculated age-adjusted incidence rates (IRs), IR ratios (IRRs), annual percent change (APC), relative survival (RS), RS ratios (RSRs), and the respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of SCLC and EPSCC according to primary site. We used the SEER historic stage variable that includes localized (confined to the organ of origin), regional (direct extension to adjacent organ/tissue or regional lymph nodes), and distant (discontinuous metastases) stages and combined localized and regional stages into "limited" stage.
RESULTS: The incidence of SCLC (IR = 76.3/million person-years; n = 51,959) was 22-times that of EPSCC (IR = 3.5; n = 2,438). Of the EPSCC sites, urinary bladder, prostate, and uterine cervix had the highest incidence (IRs = 0.7-0.8); urinary bladder (IRR = 4.91) and stomach (IRR = 3.46) had the greatest male/female disparities. Distant-to-limited stage site-specific IRRs of EPSCC were significantly elevated for pancreas (IRR = 6.87; P < 0.05), stomach, colon/rectum, ovary, and prostate (IRRs = 1.62-2.42; P < 0.05) and significantly decreased for salivary glands, female breast, uterine cervix, and urinary bladder (IRRs = 0.32-0.46). During 1992-2010, significant changes in IRs were observed for EPSCC overall (APC = 1.58), small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (APC = 6.75), SCLC (APC = -2.74) and small cell carcinoma of unknown primary site (APC = -4.34). Three-year RS was significantly more favorable for patients with EPSCC than SCLC for both limited (RSR = 2.06; 95% CI 1.88, 2.26) and distant stages (RSR = 1.55; 95% CI 1.16, 2.07). Among limited stage small cell carcinoma, RS was most favorable for salivary glands, female breast, and uterine cervix (RS = 52-68%), whereas RS for nearly all sites with distant stage disease was <10%.
CONCLUSION: EPSCC comprises a heterogeneous group of diseases that appears, at least in part, etiologically distinct from SCLC and is associated with more favorable stage-specific patient survival.

PMID: 25885914 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of Preoperative Transthoracic Echocardiogram on Mortality and Surgical Timing in Elderly Adults with Hip Fracture.

Arvind Nana, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 07:28
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Effect of Preoperative Transthoracic Echocardiogram on Mortality and Surgical Timing in Elderly Adults with Hip Fracture.

J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Dec;63(12):2505-2509

Authors: Luttrell K, Nana A

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of preoperative transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) on mortality, postoperative complications, surgical timing, and length of stay in individuals with surgically treated hip fracture.
DESIGN: Retrospective chart review of hospital records.
SETTING: Level I and II trauma centers.
PARTICIPANTS: Individuals consecutively surgically treated for hip fracture (N = 694).
MEASUREMENTS: Demographic and injury characteristic, operative timing, preoperative echocardiogram, complications, mortality. Primary outcome measure was in hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality. Secondary outcome measures were complications (particularly cardiovascular) and time required for medical clearance and operative treatment.
RESULTS: Preoperative TTE was performed on 131 individuals (18.9%). There was no difference between the TTE group and the control group in hospital (3.8% vs 1.8%, P = .18), 30-day (6.9% vs 6.6%, P = .90), or 1-year (20.6% versus 20.1%, P = .89) mortality. There was no significant difference in major cardiac complications. Average time from admission to operative treatment was 66.5 hours in the TTE group and 34.8 hours in the control group (P < .001). Average time from admission to medical clearance was 43.2 hours in the TTE group and 12.4 hours in the control group (P < .001). The TTE group also had a significantly longer length of stay (8.68 vs 6.44 days, P < .001).
CONCLUSION: Preoperative TTE was not associated with lower mortality in elderly adults with hip fracture in the short- or long-term postoperative period. TTE was associated with delayed surgical treatment and longer length of stay and resulted in no cardiac intervention (e.g., cardiac catheterization, stent, stress test).

PMID: 26659463 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Current Practice in the Management of Open Fractures Among Orthopaedic Trauma Surgeons. Part B: Management of Segmental Long Bone Defects. A Survey of Orthopaedic Trauma Association Members.

Arvind Nana, MD - Wed, 01/30/2019 - 07:28
Related Articles

Current Practice in the Management of Open Fractures Among Orthopaedic Trauma Surgeons. Part B: Management of Segmental Long Bone Defects. A Survey of Orthopaedic Trauma Association Members.

J Orthop Trauma. 2014 Aug;28(8):e203-7

Authors: Obremskey W, Molina C, Collinge C, Tornetta P, Sagi C, Schmidt A, Probe R, Ahn J, Nana A, Evidence-Based Quality Value and Safety Committee – Orthopaedic Trauma Association, Writing Committee

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Treatment of segmental long bone defects is one of the areas of substantial controversy in current orthopaedic trauma. The main purpose of this survey was to determine current practice and practice variation within the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) membership on this topic.
DESIGN: Survey.
SETTING: Web-based survey.
PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred seventy-nine orthopaedic trauma surgeons.
METHODS: A 15-item questionnaire-based study titled "OTA Open Fracture Survey" was constructed. The survey was delivered to all OTA membership categories. Different components of the data charts were used to analyze various aspects of open fracture management, focusing on definitive treatment and materials used for grafting in "critical-sized" segmental bone defects.
RESULTS: Between July and August 2012, a total of 379/1545 members responded for a 25% response rate. Overall, 89.5% (339/379) of respondents use some sort of antibiotic cement spacer before bone grafting. It was found that 92% of respondents preferred to use some type of autograft at time of definitive grafting of segmental defects. When using a grafting technique, 88% said they used some type of antibiotic cement. Within that context, 60.1% said graft placement should be done at 6 weeks.
CONCLUSIONS: There continues to be substantial variation in the timing of bone graft placement after soft tissue healing and the source and form of graft used. The use of antibiotic cement is common in segmental defects that require delayed bone grafting. Obtaining base-line practice characteristics on controversial topics will help provide a foundation for assessing research needs and, therefore, goals.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level V. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

PMID: 26057886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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