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Recent Research Articles from JPS Health Network

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StatPearls

Fri, 10/19/2018 - 17:15
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StatPearls

Book. 2018 01

Authors:

Abstract
Chorioamnionitis is an infection that can occur before labor, during labor, or after delivery. It can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Subacute chorioamnionitis is associated with chronic lung disease in the infant.[1] Chronic chorioamnionitis is associated with retinopathy of prematurity, very low birth weight, and impaired brain development in the premature infant. Chronic chorioamnionitis is common.[2][3][4] This terminology refers to histologic chorioamnionitis. Histologic chorioamnionitis at term is rarely infectious. In general, the clinical presentation of chorioamnionitis is defined as acute chorioamnionitis. The Greek etymology of the words chorion and amnion mean fetal membrane and itis means inflammation. Further description denotes chorioamnionitis includes the amniotic fluid. Chorioamnionitis may be identified postdelivery or postmortem on a pathologic review of the placenta and cord. In histologic chorioamnionitis, symptoms may be absent, and the placenta or cultures may not show evidence of chorioamnionitis. Most commonly, chorioamnionitis is associated with preterm labor, prolonged rupture of membranes, prolonged labor, tobacco use, nulliparous pregnancy, meconium stained fluid, multiple vaginal exams post rupture of membranes, and in women with known bacterial or viral infections. However, it can occur at term and in women without prior infections. Left untreated, chorioamnionitis can lead to morbidity and mortality for the mother and neonate. Neonatal morbidity and mortality increase in severity and occurrence with earlier gestations. Antibiotic therapy has been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of the infection in both the mother and neonate. However, antibiotics do not eradicate the infection in all cases.


PMID: 30335284

Gabapentin-induced eczematous drug eruption of the bilateral foot.

Wed, 10/17/2018 - 08:01
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Gabapentin-induced eczematous drug eruption of the bilateral foot.

Foot (Edinb). 2018 Jun 18;37:45-47

Authors: Ernst JJ, Ryba D

Abstract
Drug eruptions represent a wide spectrum of cutaneous reactions to various pharmaceutical agents. Given their complexity and varied patterns of presentation, these phenomena are the subject of study of many fields of medicine. Gabapentin is a widely prescribed medication, with numerous drug reactions previously reported. We present what we believe to be a unique presentation of a gabapentin-induced drug eruption primarily affecting the feet.

PMID: 30326409 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Stability of Locking Plate and Compression Screws for Lapidus Arthrodesis: A Biomechanical Comparison of Plate Position.

Tue, 10/16/2018 - 05:13
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Stability of Locking Plate and Compression Screws for Lapidus Arthrodesis: A Biomechanical Comparison of Plate Position.

J Foot Ankle Surg. 2018 May - Jun;57(3):466-470

Authors: Drummond D, Motley T, Kosmopoulos V, Ernst J

Abstract
Lapidus (first tarsometatarsal joint) arthrodesis is an established and widely used procedure for the management of moderate to severe hallux valgus, especially in cases involving hypermobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint. Multiple fixation methods are available, and several previous investigations have studied the relative strengths of these methods, including dorsomedial and plantar plating comparisons. However, these studies compared plates of varying designs and mechanical properties and used varying modes of compression and interfragmentary screw techniques. The present study mechanically investigated the resulting motion, stiffness, and strength of identical locking plate constructs fixed at various anatomic positions around the first tarsometatarsal joint. In a bench-top study, fourth-generation composite bones were divided into 3 fixation groups, each having identical interfragmentary screw applications, and randomized to 1 of 3 plate positions: dorsal, medial, or plantar. The plates applied in each case were identical locking plates, precontoured to fit the anatomy. Each construct was experimentally tested using a cantilever bending approach. The outcomes obtained were stiffness, yield force, displacement at yield, ultimate force, and displacement at ultimate force. The plantar plate position showed superior initial stiffness and force to ultimate failure. The plantar and medial plate positions exhibited superior force to yield. The medial plate position was superior regarding displacement tolerated before the yield point and catastrophic failure. The dorsal plate position was not superior for any outcome measured. Plantar and medial plating each offered biomechanical benefits. Clinical studies using similarly matched constructs are required to show whether these findings translate into improved clinical outcomes.

PMID: 29472168 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Concordance with NCCN treatment guidelines: Relations with health care utilization, cost, and mortality in breast cancer patients with secondary metastasis.

Mon, 10/15/2018 - 05:47

Concordance with NCCN treatment guidelines: Relations with health care utilization, cost, and mortality in breast cancer patients with secondary metastasis.

Cancer. 2018 Oct 14;:

Authors: Rocque GB, Williams CP, Kenzik KM, Jackson BE, Azuero A, Halilova KI, Ingram SA, Pisu M, Forero A, Bhatia S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The impact of National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) treatment guideline concordance on costs, health care utilization, and mortality for patients with breast cancer and secondary metastases is unknown.
METHODS: From 2007 to 2013, women with early-stage breast cancer who received treatment for secondary metastases (n = 5651) were evaluated for first recorded systemic therapy concordance with NCCN guidelines within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program-Medicare linked database. Generalized linear and mixed effects models evaluated factors associated with nonconcordance and the relation between concordance status and health care utilization and costs. Mortality risk was estimated with Cox regression.
RESULTS: Eighteen percent of the patients received nonconcordant therapy, with the most common being single-agent, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy (36%), therapy mismatched with the estrogen receptor/HER2 status (11%), unapproved bevacizumab regimens (10%), and adjuvant regimens in a metastatic setting (6%). A younger age, a hormone receptor-negative status, and a HER2-positive status were associated with nonconcordance (P < .05). Nonconcordance was associated with 22% and 21% increased rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations, respectively, and $1765 higher average monthly Medicare costs. Differences in adjusted mortality risk were noted by the category of nonconcordance; single-agent, HER2-targeted therapy was associated with decreased mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.66; 95% confidence limit [CL], 0.57-0.76), and increased mortality risk was observed with unapproved bevacizumab use (HR, 1.40; 95% CL, 1.13-1.74).
CONCLUSIONS: Most patients (82%) received treatment consistent with NCCN guidelines. Nonconcordant treatment was associated with higher health care utilization and costs, with mortality differences observed by the type of guideline deviation. Consideration of both patient and financial outcomes will be important as health systems increase the emphasis on guideline-based care.

PMID: 30317547 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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