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Home-based Physical Activity Coaching, Physical Activity, and Health Care Utilization in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Self-Management Activation Research Trial Secondary Outcomes.

Wed, 05/29/2019 - 06:42
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Home-based Physical Activity Coaching, Physical Activity, and Health Care Utilization in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Self-Management Activation Research Trial Secondary Outcomes.

Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2018 04;15(4):470-478

Authors: Coultas DB, Jackson BE, Russo R, Peoples J, Singh KP, Sloan J, Uhm M, Ashmore JA, Blair SN, Bae S

Abstract
RATIONALE: Physical inactivity among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with exacerbations requiring high-cost health care utilization including urgent, emergent, and hospital care.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of a behavioral lifestyle physical activity intervention combined with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management education to prevent high-cost health care utilization.
METHODS: This was an analysis of secondary outcomes of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Self-Management Activation Research Trial, a two-arm randomized trial of stable adult outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease recruited from primary care and pulmonary clinics. Following a 6-week self-management education run-in period, participants were randomized to usual care or to a telephone-delivered home-based health coaching intervention over 20 weeks. Secondary outcomes of physical activity and health care utilization were determined by self-report 6, 12, and 18 months after randomization. Associations between treatment allocation arm and these secondary outcomes were examined using log-binomial and Poisson regression models.
RESULTS: A total of 325 outpatients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were enrolled in the trial. Their average age was 70.3 years (standard deviation, 9.5), and 50.5% were female; 156 were randomized to usual care and 149 to the intervention. A greater proportion of participants reported being persistently active over the 18-month follow-up period in the intervention group (73.6%) compared with the usual care group (57.8%) (mean difference, 15.8%; 95% confidence interval, 4.0-27.7%). This association varied by severity of forced expiratory volume in 1 second impairment (P for interaction = 0.09). Those in the intervention group with moderate impairment (forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 50-70% predicted), more frequently reported being persistently active compared with the usual care (86.0 vs. 65.1%; mean difference, 20.9%; 95% confidence interval, 5.7-36.1%). Patients with severe and very severe forced expiratory volume in 1 second impairment (forced expiratory volume in 1 second < 50% predicted) in the intervention group also reported being persistently active more frequently compared with usual care (63.3 vs. 50.8%; mean difference, 12.6%; 95% confidence interval, -4.7 to 29.8). The intervention was associated with a lower rate of lung-related utilization (adjusted rate ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.63) only among participants with severe spirometric impairment.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that a feasible and generalizable home-based coaching intervention may decrease sedentary behavior and increase physical activity levels. In those with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, this intervention may reduce lung disease-related health care utilization. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01108991).

PMID: 29283670 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Setting-Based Prioritization for Birth Cohort Hepatitis C Virus Testing in the United States.

Tue, 05/28/2019 - 14:41
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Setting-Based Prioritization for Birth Cohort Hepatitis C Virus Testing in the United States.

Clin Infect Dis. 2019 May 24;:

Authors: MacDonald BR, Chu TC, Stewart RA, Ojha RP

PMID: 31125407 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Lower Abnormal Fecal Immunochemical Test Cutoff Values Improve Detection of Colorectal Cancer in System-Level Screens.

Thu, 05/16/2019 - 07:58
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Lower Abnormal Fecal Immunochemical Test Cutoff Values Improve Detection of Colorectal Cancer in System-Level Screens.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 May 11;:

Authors: Berry E, Miller S, Koch M, Balasubramanian B, Argenbright K, Gupta S

Abstract
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-invasive tests used in colorectal cancer screening, such as the fecal immunochemical test (FIT), are more acceptable but detect neoplasias with lower levels of sensitivity than colonoscopy. We investigated whether lowering the cutoff concentration of hemoglobin for designation as an abnormal FIT result increased the detection of advanced neoplasia in a mailed outreach program.
METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 17,017 uninsured patients, 50-64 years old, who were not current with screening and enrolled in a safety-net system in Texas. We reduced the cutoff value for an abnormal FIT result from ≥ 20 to ≥ 10 μg hemoglobin/g feces a priori. All patients with abnormal FIT results were offered no-cost diagnostic colonoscopy. We compared proportions with abnormal FIT results and neoplasia yield for standard vs lower cutoff values, as well as absolute hemoglobin concentration distribution among 5838 persons who completed the FIT. Our primary aim was to determine the effects of implementing a lower hemoglobin concentration cutoff on colonoscopy demand and yield, specifically colorectal cancer (CRC) and advanced neoplasia detection, compared to the standard, higher, hemoglobin concentration cutoff value.
RESULTS: The proportions of patients with abnormal FIT results were 12.3% at the ≥ 10 μg hemoglobin/g feces and 6.6% at the standard ≥ 20 μg hemoglobin/g feces cutoff value (P=.0013). Detection rates for the lower vs the standard threshold were 10.2% vs 12.7% for advanced neoplasia (P=.12) and 0.9% vs 1.2% for CRC (P=.718). The positive predictive values were 18.9% for the lower threshold vs 24.4% for the standard threshold for advanced neoplasia (P=.053) and 1.7% vs 2.4% for CRC (P=.659). The number needed to screen to detect 1 case with advanced neoplasia was 45 at the lower threshold compared with 58 at the standard threshold; the number needed to scope to detect 1 case with advanced neoplasia increased from 4 to 5. Most patients with CRC (72.7%) or advanced adenoma (67.3%) had hemoglobin concentrations ≥ 20 μg/g feces. In the 10-19 μg hemoglobin/g feces range, there were 3 patients with CRC (3/11, 27.3%) and 36 with advanced adenoma (36/110, 32.7%) who would not have been detected at the standard positive threshold (advanced neoplasia Pcomparison <.001). The proportion of patients found to have no neoplasia after an abnormal FIT result (false positives) was not significantly higher with the lower cutoff value (44.4%) than the standard cutoff (39.1%) (P=.1103).
CONCLUSION: In a prospective study of 17,017 uninsured patients, we found that reducing the abnormal FIT result cutoff value (to the ≥ 10 μg hemoglobin/g feces) might increase detection of advanced neoplasia, but doubled the proportion of patients requiring a diagnostic colonoscopy. If colonoscopy capacity permits, health systems that use quantitative FITs should consider lowering the abnormal cutoff value, to optimize CRC detection and prevention. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT01946282.

PMID: 31085338 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Recovery of Motor Function after Mixed and Motor Nerve Repair with Processed Nerve Allograft.

Fri, 05/03/2019 - 14:58
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Recovery of Motor Function after Mixed and Motor Nerve Repair with Processed Nerve Allograft.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2019 Mar;7(3):e2163

Authors: Safa B, Shores JT, Ingari JV, Weber RV, Cho M, Zoldos J, Niacaras TR, Nesti LJ, Thayer WP, Buncke GM

Abstract
Background: Severe trauma often results in the transection of major peripheral nerves. The RANGER Registry is an ongoing observational study on the use and outcomes of processed nerve allografts (PNAs; Avance Nerve Graft, AxoGen, Inc., Alachua, Fla.). Here, we report on motor recovery outcomes for nerve injuries repaired acutely or in a delayed fashion with PNA and comparisons to historical controls in the literature.
Methods: The RANGER database was queried for mixed and motor nerve injuries in the upper extremities, head, and neck area having completed greater than 1 year of follow-up. All subjects with sufficient assessments to evaluate functional outcomes were included. Meaningful recovery was defined as ≥M3 on the Medical Research Council scale. Demographics, outcomes, and covariate analysis were performed to further characterize this subgroup.
Results: The subgroup included 20 subjects with 22 nerve repairs. The mean ± SD (minimum-maximum) age was 38 ± 19 (16-77) years. The median repair time was 9 (0-133) days. The mean graft length was 33 ± 17 (10-70) mm with a mean follow-up of 779 ± 480 (371-2,423) days. Meaningful motor recovery was observed in 73%. Subgroup analysis showed no differences between gap lengths or mechanism of injury. There were no related adverse events.
Conclusions: PNAs were safe and provided functional motor recovery in mixed and motor nerve repairs. Outcomes compare favorably to historical controls for nerve autograft and exceed those for hollow tube conduit. PNA may be considered as an option when reconstructing major peripheral nerve injuries.

PMID: 31044125 [PubMed]

Real-world data on antiviral treatments for hepatitis C virus infections: Can we define intention to treat or per protocol analyses?

Fri, 05/03/2019 - 14:58
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Real-world data on antiviral treatments for hepatitis C virus infections: Can we define intention to treat or per protocol analyses?

J Hepatol. 2018 08;69(2):551-553

Authors: Ojha RP, Steyerberg EW

PMID: 29843905 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Deconstructing dogma: Nonoperative management of small bowel obstruction in the virgin abdomen.

Thu, 05/02/2019 - 07:44
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Deconstructing dogma: Nonoperative management of small bowel obstruction in the virgin abdomen.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 07;85(1):33-36

Authors: Collom ML, Duane TM, Campbell-Furtick M, Moore BJ, Haddad NN, Zielinski MD, Ray-Zack MD, Yeh DD, Choudhry AJ, Cullinane DC, Inaba K, Escalante A, Wydo S, Turay D, Pakula A, Watras J, EAST SBO Workgroup:

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Management of small bowel obstruction (SBO) has become more conservative, especially in those patients with previous abdominal surgery (PAS). However, surgical dogma continues to recommend operative exploration for SBO with no PAS. With the increased use of computed tomography imaging resulting in more SBO diagnoses, it is important to reevaluate the role of mandatory operative exploration. Gastrografin (GG) administration decreases the need for operative exploration and may be an option for SBO without PAS. We hypothesized that the use of GG for SBO without PAS will be equally effective in reducing the operative exploration rate compared with that for SBO with PAS.
METHODS: A post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted for patients with SBO from February 2015 through December 2016. Patients younger than 18 years, pregnant patients, and patients with evidence of hypotension, bowel strangulation, peritonitis, closed loop obstruction or pneumatosis intestinalis were excluded. The primary outcome was operative exploration rate for SBO with or without PAS. Rate adjustment was accomplished through multivariate logistic regression.
RESULTS: Overall, 601 patients with SBO were included in the study, 500 with PAS and 101 patients without PAS. The two groups were similar except for age, sex, prior abdominal surgery including colon surgery, prior SBO admission, and history of cancer. Multivariate analysis showed that PAS (odds ratio [OR], 0.47; p = 0.03) and the use of GG (OR, 0.11; p < 0.01) were independent predictors of successful nonoperative management, whereas intensive care unit admission (OR, 16.0; p < 0.01) was associated with a higher likelihood of need for operation. The use of GG significantly decreased the need for operation in patients with and without PAS.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with and without PAS who received GG had lower rates of operative exploration for SBO compared with those who did not receive GG. Patients with a diagnosis of SBO without PAS should be considered for the nonoperative management approach using GG.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, level IV.

PMID: 29965940 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Aromatase Inhibitors Such as Letrozole (Femara) vs. Clomiphene (Clomid) for Subfertile Women with PCOS.

Wed, 05/01/2019 - 05:15

Aromatase Inhibitors Such as Letrozole (Femara) vs. Clomiphene (Clomid) for Subfertile Women with PCOS.

Am Fam Physician. 2019 May 01;99(9):545-546

Authors: LeFevre N

PMID: 31038903 [PubMed - in process]

Large observational study on risks predicting emergency department return visits and associated disposition deviations.

Wed, 05/01/2019 - 05:15
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Large observational study on risks predicting emergency department return visits and associated disposition deviations.

Clin Exp Emerg Med. 2019 May 07;:

Authors: Huggins C, Robinson RD, Knowles H, Cizenski J, Mbugua R, Laureano-Phillips J, Schrader CD, Zenarosa NR, Wang H

Abstract
Objective: A common emergency department (ED) patient care outcome metric is 72-hour ED return visits (EDRVs). Risks predictive of EDRV vary in different studies. However, risk differences associated with related versus unrelated EDRV and subsequent EDRV disposition deviations (EDRVDD) are rarely addressed. We aim to compare the potential risk patterns predictive of related and unrelated EDRV and further determine those potential risks predictive of EDRVDD.
Methods: We conducted a large retrospective observational study from September 1, 2015 through June 30, 2016. ED Patient demographic characteristics and clinical metrics were compared among patients of 1) related; 2) unrelated; and 3) no EDRVs. EDRVDD was defined as obvious disposition differences between initial ED visit and return visits. A multivariate multinomial logistic regression was performed to determine the independent risks predictive of EDRV and EDRVDD after adjusting for all confounders.
Results: A total of 63,990 patients were enrolled; 4.65% were considered related EDRV, and 1.80% were unrelated. The top risks predictive of EDRV were homeless, patient left without being seen, eloped, or left against medical advice. The top risks predictive of EDRVDD were geriatric and whether patients had primary care physicians regardless as to whether patient returns were related or unrelated to their initial ED visits.
Conclusion: Over 6% of patients experienced ED return visits within 72 hours. Though risks predicting such revisits were multifactorial, similar risks were identified not only for ED return visits, but also for return ED visit disposition deviations.

PMID: 31036785 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cancer Screening in Li-Fraumeni Syndrome.

Wed, 05/01/2019 - 05:15
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Cancer Screening in Li-Fraumeni Syndrome.

JAMA Oncol. 2017 12 01;3(12):1645-1646

Authors: Asdahl PH, Ojha RP, Hasle H

PMID: 28772307 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Edwardsiella tarda Bacteremia in Untreated Hepatitis C: Alterations in Antimicrobial Therapy for a Pan-Susceptible Pathogen in a Critically Ill Patient.

Tue, 04/30/2019 - 05:35

Edwardsiella tarda Bacteremia in Untreated Hepatitis C: Alterations in Antimicrobial Therapy for a Pan-Susceptible Pathogen in a Critically Ill Patient.

Am J Ther. 2019 Feb 28;:

Authors: Morrisette T, Hewgley WP, Hewgley H

PMID: 31033487 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Single-stage bilateral distal femur replacement for traumatic distal femur fractures.

Fri, 04/26/2019 - 06:23
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Single-stage bilateral distal femur replacement for traumatic distal femur fractures.

Arthroplast Today. 2019 Mar;5(1):26-31

Authors: Neal DC, Sambhariya V, Tran A, Rahman SK, Dean TJ, Wagner RA, Sanchez HB

Abstract
Treatment of periprosthetic distal femur fractures and comminuted intraarticular distal femur fractures with previous arthritis remains a difficult challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Previous case series have shown that distal femur replacement (DFR) can effectively compensate for bone loss, relieve knee pain, and allow for early ambulation in both of these fracture patterns. Owing to the typical low-energy mechanism of these injuries, a bilateral injury treated with DFR is rarely encountered. We present a patient with traumatic open left Rorabeck III/Su III periprosthetic distal femur fracture and closed right intraarticular distal femur fracture (AO fcation 33-C2) with end-stage arthrosis treated with single-stage bilateral DFR. We suggest that in patients with similar injuries, single-stage bilateral DFR can provide the benefits of early mobilization and accelerated recovery.

PMID: 31020017 [PubMed]

Predicting bacterial infections among pediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia: External validation of the PICNICC model.

Thu, 04/25/2019 - 08:03
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Predicting bacterial infections among pediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia: External validation of the PICNICC model.

Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018 04;65(4):

Authors: Ojha RP, Asdahl PH, Steyerberg EW, Schroeder H

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The Predicting Infectious Complications in Neutropenic Children and Young People with Cancer (PICNICC) model was recently developed for antibiotic stewardship among pediatric cancer patients, but limited information is available about its clinical usefulness. We aimed to assess the performance of the PICNICC model for predicting microbiologically documented bacterial infections among pediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data for febrile neutropenia episodes at a pediatric cancer center in Aarhus, Denmark between 2000 and 2016. We assessed the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), calibration, and clinical usefulness (i.e., net benefit). We also recalibrated the model using statistical updating methods.
RESULTS: We observed 306 microbiologically documented bacterial infections among 1,892 episodes of febrile neutropenia. The AUC of the model was 0.73 (95% confidence limits [CL]: 0.71-0.75). The calibration intercept (calibration-in-the-large) was -0.69 (95% CL: -0.86 to -0.51) and the slope was 0.77 (95% CL: 0.65-0.89). Modest net benefit was observed at a decision threshold of 5%. Recalibration improved calibration but did not improve net benefit.
CONCLUSIONS: The PICNICC model has potential for reducing unnecessary antibiotic exposure for pediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia, but continued validation and refinement is necessary to optimize clinical usefulness.

PMID: 29286572 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Coming in Warm: Qualitative Study and Concept Map to Cultivate Patient-centered Empathy in Emergency Care.

Tue, 04/23/2019 - 07:22

Coming in Warm: Qualitative Study and Concept Map to Cultivate Patient-centered Empathy in Emergency Care.

AEM Educ Train. 2019 Apr;3(2):136-144

Authors: Pettit KE, Rattray NA, Wang H, Stuckey S, Mark Courtney D, Messman AM, Kline JA

Abstract
Background: Increased empathy may improve patient perceptions and outcomes. No training tool has been derived to teach empathy to emergency care providers. Accordingly, we engaged patients to assist in creating a concept map to teach empathy to emergency care providers.
Methods: We recruited patients, patient caretakers and patient advocates with emergency department experience to participate in three separate focus groups (n = 18 participants). Facilitators guided discussion about behaviors that physicians should demonstrate to rapidly create trust; enhance patient perception that the physician understood the patient's point of view, needs, concerns, and fears; and optimize patient/caregiver understanding of their experience. Verbatim transcripts from the three focus groups were read by the authors, and by consensus, five major themes with 10 minor themes were identified. After creating a codebook with thematic definitions, one author reviewed all transcripts to a library of verbatim excerpts coded by theme. To test for inter-rater reliability, two other authors similarly coded a random sample of 40% of the transcripts. Authors independently chose excerpts that represented consensus and strong emotional responses from participants.
Results: Approximately 90% of opinions and preferences fell within 15 themes, with five central themes: provider transparency, acknowledgment of patient's emotions, provider disposition, trust in physician, and listening. Participants also highlighted the need for authenticity, context, and individuality to enhance empathic communication. For empathy map content, patients offered example behaviors that promote perceptions of physician warmth, respect, physical touch, knowledge of medical history, explanation of tests, transparency, and treating patients as partners. The resulting concept map was named the "Empathy Circle."
Conclusions: Focus group participants emphasized themes and tangible behaviors to improve empathy in emergency care. These were incorporated into the Empathy Circle, a novel concept map that can serve as the framework to teach empathy to emergency care providers.

PMID: 31008425 [PubMed]

Treatment patterns for ductal carcinoma in situ with close or positive mastectomy margins.

Sat, 04/20/2019 - 07:38
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Treatment patterns for ductal carcinoma in situ with close or positive mastectomy margins.

J Surg Res. 2018 11;231:36-42

Authors: Jones CE, Richman J, Jackson BE, Wallace AS, Krontiras H, Urist MM, Bland KI, Parker CC

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Mastectomy remains an effective treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) but whether further therapy is warranted for close or positive margins is controversial. We aim to characterize the treatment practices of DCIS throughout the United States in patients who undergo mastectomy with close or positive margins to better understand the use of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the 2004-2013 National Cancer Database, we identified all female patients with a diagnosis of DCIS who underwent mastectomy. Distributional characteristics were summarized for overall and margin-stratified samples. Characteristic differences were assessed by region and receipt of radiation. Chi-square and independent sample t-tests were used to assess differences for categorical and continuous variables, respectively.
RESULTS: In 21,591 patients who met inclusion criteria, 470 patients with close/positive margins were identified. Sixteen percent of patients with close/positive margins received PMRT compared to 1.5% with negative margins (P < 0.01). There was no difference in PMRT and patient race, insurance status, treatment facility, or endocrine therapy. Patients with close/positive margins who received PMRT were more likely to be in an urban setting from the Midwest (24.6%) and Northeast (21.8%) compared to the West (11.0%) and South (10.7%) (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Use of PMRT for DCIS following mastectomy with close/positive margins differs across the country. Regional variations in treatment patterns reinforce a need to determine whether PMRT improves survival to establish treatment guidelines.

PMID: 30278953 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Prehospital Blood Product and Crystalloid Resuscitation in the Severely Injured Patient: A Secondary Analysis of the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma Trial.

Fri, 04/19/2019 - 06:51
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Prehospital Blood Product and Crystalloid Resuscitation in the Severely Injured Patient: A Secondary Analysis of the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma Trial.

Ann Surg. 2019 Apr 13;:

Authors: Guyette FX, Sperry JL, Peitzman AB, Billiar TR, Daley BJ, Miller RS, Harbrecht BG, Claridge JA, Putnam T, Duane TM, Phelan HA, Brown JB

Abstract
MINI: Hemorrhage is the primary cause of preventable trauma death. Secondary analyses of scene patients from the PAMPer trial demonstrated that prehospital packed red blood cell and plasma had the greatest reduction in 30-day mortality compared with crystalloid-only resuscitation. Patients with hemorrhagic shock should receive prehospital blood products when available, preferably packed red blood cell and plasma.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether prehospital blood products reduce 30-day mortality in patients at risk for hemorrhagic shock compared with crystalloid only resuscitation.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Hemorrhage is the primary cause of preventable death after injury. Large volume crystalloid resuscitation can be deleterious. The benefits of prehospital packed red blood cells (PRBCs), plasma, or transfusion of both products among trauma patients is unknown compared with crystalloid.
METHODS: Secondary analysis of the multicenter PAMPer trial was performed on hypotensive injured patients from the scene. The trial randomized 27 helicopter bases to prehospital plasma or standard resuscitation. Standard resuscitation at the sites was equally divided between crystalloid and crystalloid + PRBC. This led to 4 prehospital resuscitation groups: crystalloid only; PRBC; plasma; and PRBC+plasma. Cox regression determined the association between resuscitation groups and risk-adjusted 30-day mortality. The dose effect of resuscitation fluids was also explored.
RESULTS: Four hundred seven patients were included. PRBC+plasma had the greatest benefit [hazard ratio (HR) 0.38; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.26-0.55, P < 0.001], followed by plasma (HR 0.57; 95% CI 0.36-0.91, P = 0.017) and PRBC (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.49-0.95, P = 0.025) versus crystalloid only. Mortality was lower per-unit of PRBC (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.52-0.92, p = 0.009) and plasma (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.54-0.88, P = 0.003). Crystalloid volume was associated with increased mortality among patients receiving blood products (HR 1.65; 95% CI 1.17-2.32, P = 0.004).
CONCLUSION: Patients receiving prehospital PRBC+plasma had the greatest mortality benefit. Crystalloid only had the worst survival. Patients with hemorrhagic shock should receive prehospital blood products when available, preferably PRBC+plasma. Prehospital whole blood may be ideal in this population.

PMID: 30998533 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Retrograde dorsalis pedis angiosomal flow compromised by small puncture wound leading to transmetatarsal amputation.

Fri, 04/12/2019 - 06:31

Retrograde dorsalis pedis angiosomal flow compromised by small puncture wound leading to transmetatarsal amputation.

Foot (Edinb). 2019 Feb 14;39:60-67

Authors: Ernst JJ, Ryba D, Brower B

Abstract
Pedal puncture wounds can precipitate a variety of complications, often resulting from a delay in treatment. Although the risk of infection predominates, direct vascular insult and subsequent ischemia is a lesser reported complication of these injuries. Consequently, this may have morbid results, especially on a background of pre-existing peripheral vascular disease. A case involving a small, plantar forefoot puncture wound, ultimately resulting in transmetatarsal amputation due to ischemic dry gangrene in an uncontrolled, but sensate, diabetic with profound vasculopathy is presented. This presentation highlights the importance of considering the potential for macrovascular damage via pedal puncture, and the potentially magnified complications in patients with dependent retrograde angiosomal flow and compromised collateral circulation. Based on a thorough analysis of the literature and the findings in this clinical example, a detailed investigation of angiosomal blood supply through direct and indirect vessel flow in patients with peripheral arterial disease incurring puncture wounds is advocated. In these patients, lack of compensatory avenues of the pedal circulation may portend significant tissue loss in an otherwise inoffensive situation. Knowledge of this complication, although rare, may prompt the clinician to assess for its potential, and emphasize a preference for direct revascularization in those with critical limb ischemia. Level of Clinical Evidence: 4.

PMID: 30974342 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir Effectively Treats Hepatitis C Virus Infections in an Underserved Population.

Fri, 04/12/2019 - 06:31
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Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir Effectively Treats Hepatitis C Virus Infections in an Underserved Population.

Dig Dis Sci. 2018 12;63(12):3233-3240

Authors: Stewart RA, MacDonald BR, Chu TC, Moore JD, Fasanmi EO, Ojha RP

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Underserved populations have an unequal burden of HCV infections and poor outcomes with interferon-based treatments. Direct-acting antivirals have the potential to reduce these inequalities.
AIMS: We aimed to estimate sustained virologic response (SVR) following treatment with sofosbuvir-based regimens for HCV infections among underserved individuals and summarize the frequency of SVR across published studies of underserved populations.
METHODS: We used data from a clinical cohort of patients aged ≥ 18 years who initiated sofosbuvir-based regimens for HCV infection between February 2014 and June 2016 at an urban public hospital network that serves as the healthcare safety-net for Tarrant County, Texas. We estimated SVR with corresponding 95% confidence limits (CL). In addition, we systematically reviewed the evidence to identify other studies of direct-acting antivirals among underserved populations.
RESULTS: Our study population comprised 435 patients. The majority of patients were aged ≥ 50 years (76%), male (52%), non-Hispanic White (54%), HCV genotype 1 (79%) and treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (69%). Overall SVR was 89% (95% CL 86, 92%) and highest for ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (SVR = 95%, 95% CL 92, 97%). The reported SVR following direct-acting antivirals among 837 underserved patients from three other studies ranged between 90 and 99%.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that direct-acting antivirals, particularly ledipasvir/sofosbuvir, are generally effective for achieving SVR among underserved patients with HCV infections and may help reduce inequalities in HCV prevalence and outcomes for this vulnerable population.

PMID: 30014226 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Corrigendum to "Reliability of the classification of proximal femur fractures: Does clinical experience matter?" [Injury 49 (1) (2018) 819-823].

Mon, 03/25/2019 - 13:22
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Corrigendum to "Reliability of the classification of proximal femur fractures: Does clinical experience matter?" [Injury 49 (1) (2018) 819-823].

Injury. 2019 Mar 19;:

Authors: Crijns TJ, Janssen SJ, Davis JT, Ring D, Sanchez HB, Science of Variation Group

PMID: 30902425 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Research Agenda for Assessment and Management of Psychosis in Emergency Department Patients.

Tue, 03/19/2019 - 07:54
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A Research Agenda for Assessment and Management of Psychosis in Emergency Department Patients.

West J Emerg Med. 2019 Mar;20(2):403-408

Authors: Peltzer-Jones J, Nordstrom K, Currier G, Berlin JS, Singh C, Schneider S

Abstract
Introduction: Emergency departments (ED) manage a wide variety of critical medical presentations. Traumatic, neurologic, and cardiac crises are among the most prevalent types of emergencies treated in an ED setting. The high volume of presentations has led to collaborative partnerships in research and process development between experts in emergency medicine (EM) and other disciplines. While psychosis is a medical emergency frequently treated in the ED, there remains a paucity of evidence-based literature highlighting best practices for management of psychotic presentations in the ED. In the absence of collaborative research, development of best practice guidelines cannot begin. A working group convened to develop a set of high-priority research questions to address the knowledge gaps in the care of psychotic patients in the ED. This article is the product of a subgroup considering "Special Populations: Psychotic Spectrum Disorders," from the 2016 Coalition on Psychiatric Emergencies first Research Consensus Conference on Acute Mental Illness.
Methods: Participants were identified with expertise in psychosis from EM, emergency psychiatry, emergency psychology, clinical research, governmental agencies, and patient advocacy groups. Background literature reviews were performed prior to the in-person meeting. A nominal group technique was employed to develop group consensus on the highest priority research gaps. Following the nominal group technique, input was solicited from all participants during the meeting, questions were iteratively focused and revised, voted on, and then ranked by importance.
Results: The group developed 28 separate questions. After clarification and voting, the group identified six high-priority research areas. These questions signify the perceived gaps in psychosis research in emergency settings. Questions were further grouped into two topic areas: screening and identification; and intervention and management strategies.
Conclusion: While psychosis has become a more common presentation in the ED, standardized screening, intervention, and outcome measurement for psychosis has not moved beyond attention to agitation management. As improved outpatient-intervention protocols are developed for treatment of psychosis, it is imperative that parallel protocols are developed for delivery in the ED setting.

PMID: 30881564 [PubMed - in process]

Opportunities for Research in Mental Health Emergencies: Executive Summary and Methodology.

Tue, 03/19/2019 - 07:54
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Opportunities for Research in Mental Health Emergencies: Executive Summary and Methodology.

West J Emerg Med. 2019 Mar;20(2):380-385

Authors: Wilson MP, Shenvi C, Rives L, Nordstrom K, Schneider S, Gerardi M

Abstract
Introduction: Despite the ever-increasing numbers of mental health patients presenting to United States emergency departments, there are large gaps in knowledge about acute care of the behavioral health patient. To address this important problem, the Coalition on Psychiatric Emergencies convened a research consensus conference in December 2016 consisting of clinical researchers, clinicians from emergency medicine, psychiatry and psychology, and representatives from governmental agencies and patient advocacy groups.
Methods: Participants used a standardized methodology to select and rank research questions in the order of importance to both researchers and patients.
Results: Three working groups (geriatrics, substance use disorders, and psychosis) reached consensus on 26 questions within their respective domains. These questions are summarized in this document.
Conclusion: The research consensus conference is the first of its kind to include non-clinicians in helping identify knowledge gaps in behavioral emergencies. It is hoped that these questions will prove useful to prioritize future research within the specialty.

PMID: 30881561 [PubMed - in process]

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