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Recent Research Articles from JPS Health Network

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Updated: 2 hours 34 min ago

Short-Course Antimicrobial Therapy Does Not Increase Treatment Failure Rate in Patients with Intra-Abdominal Infection Involving Fungal Organisms.

Tue, 09/25/2018 - 12:35
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Short-Course Antimicrobial Therapy Does Not Increase Treatment Failure Rate in Patients with Intra-Abdominal Infection Involving Fungal Organisms.

Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2018 May/Jun;19(4):376-381

Authors: Elwood NR, Guidry CA, Duane TM, Cuschieri J, Cook CH, O'Neill PJ, Askari R, Napolitano LM, Namias N, Dellinger EP, Watson CM, Banton KL, Blake DP, Hassinger TE, Sawyer RG

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Fungi frequently are isolated in intra-abdominal infections (IAI). The Study to Optimize Peritoneal Infection Therapy (STOP-IT) recently suggested short-course treatment for patients with IAI. It remains unclear whether the presence of fungi in IAI affects the optimal duration of Antimicrobial therapy. We hypothesized that a shorter treatment course in IAI with fungal organisms would be associated with a higher rate of treatment failure.
METHODS: Patients enrolled in the STOP-IT trial were stratified according to the presence or absence of a fungal isolate. They were analyzed as a subgroup based on original randomization to either the control group or an experimental group that received a four-day course of Antimicrobial therapy and by comparison with those without a fungal component to their infection. Descriptive comparisons were performed using a χ2, Fisher exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test as appropriate. The primary outcome was a composite of recurrent IAI, surgical site infection, and death.
RESULTS: A total of 411 patients in the study (79%) had available culture data, of which 58 (14%) had positive fungal cultures. The most common organisms were Candida albicans and C. glabrata. The treatment failure rate was equivalent in the experimental and control arms (29.6% vs. 22.6%; p = 0.54). Patients with fungal isolates were more likely to have malignant disease (25.9% vs. 9.6%; p = 0.0004) and coronary artery disease (22% vs. 12%; p = 0.04), but were otherwise similar to those without fungal isolates. Patients with fungal isolates had more hospital days (median 10 vs. 7; p < 0.0001) and more days to resumption of enteral intake (median 5 vs. 3; p = 0.0006), but there was no difference in the composite outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IAI involving fungal organisms randomized to a shorter course of Antimicrobial therapy had no difference in the rate of treatment failure. These results suggest that the presence of fungi in IAI may not indicate independently the need for a longer course of Antimicrobial therapy.

PMID: 29565726 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Comparison of pharmacy students' self-efficacy to address cessation counseling needs for traditional and electronic cigarette use.

Sat, 09/22/2018 - 12:59
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Comparison of pharmacy students' self-efficacy to address cessation counseling needs for traditional and electronic cigarette use.

Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2018 Jul;10(7):955-963

Authors: Nduaguba SO, Ford KH, Bamgbade BA, Ubanyionwu O

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study assessed pharmacy students' self-rated ability to provide cessation counseling for e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking.
EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study was conducted in spring 2014 at The University of Texas at Austin. Participants included first through fourth year (P1-P4) doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students. Perceived confidence and knowledge to counsel on cigarette smoking cessation and e-cigarette cessation were self-rated and based on the Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-and Arrange (5 A's) follow-up model as well as general counseling skills for recreational nicotine product use cessation. Comparisons were made between students' confidence to counsel patients on traditional cigarette smoking cessation and e-cigarette cessation and by class level.
FINDINGS: Compared to cigarette smoking cessation counseling, students were less confident in their ability to counsel on e-cigarette cessation using the 5 A's model and general counseling skills. Students perceived themselves to be less knowledgeable about the harmful effects of e-cigarettes, pharmacists' role in counseling on e-cigarette cessation, and how patients can benefit from e-cigarette cessation counseling. A higher proportion of students reported having no training on e-cigarette cessation compared to cigarette smoking cessation (59% vs 9%).
SUMMARY: Targeted training on how to counsel patients on e-cigarette cessation should be included in pharmacy curricula. Such training is expected to increase the confidence of pharmacists-in-training to address the needs of patients who use e-cigarettes.

PMID: 30236434 [PubMed - in process]

Risks predicting prolonged hospital discharge boarding in a regional acute care hospital.

Wed, 09/19/2018 - 08:03
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Risks predicting prolonged hospital discharge boarding in a regional acute care hospital.

BMC Health Serv Res. 2018 01 30;18(1):59

Authors: Shaikh SA, Robinson RD, Cheeti R, Rath S, Cowden CD, Rosinia F, Zenarosa NR, Wang H

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Prolonged hospital discharge boarding can impact patient flow resulting in upstream Emergency Department crowding. We aim to determine the risks predicting prolonged hospital discharge boarding and their direct and indirect effects on patient flow.
METHODS: Retrospective review of a single hospital discharge database was conducted. Variables including type of disposition, disposition boarding time, case management consultation, discharge medications prescriptions, severity of illness, and patient homeless status were analyzed in a multivariate logistic regression model. Hospital charges, potential savings of hospital bed hours, and whether detailed discharge instructions provided adequate explanations to patients were also analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 11,527 admissions was entered into final analysis. The median discharge boarding time was approximately 2 h. Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) of patients transferring to other hospitals was 7.45 (95% CI 5.35-10.37), to court or law enforcement custody was 2.51 (95% CI 1.84-3.42), and to a skilled nursing facility was 2.48 (95% CI 2.10-2.93). AOR was 0.57 (95% CI 0.47-0.71) if the disposition order was placed during normal office hours (0800-1700). AOR of early case management consultation was 1.52 (95% CI 1.37-1.68) versus 1.73 (95% CI 1.03-2.89) for late consultation. Eighty-eight percent of patients experiencing discharge boarding times within 2 h of disposition expressed positive responses when questioned about the quality of explanations of discharge instructions and follow-up plans based on satisfaction surveys. Similar results (86% positive response) were noted among patients whose discharge boarding times were prolonged (> 2 h, p = 0.44). An average charge of $6/bed/h was noted in all hospital discharges. Maximizing early discharge boarding (≤ 2 h) would have resulted in 16,376 hospital bed hours saved thereby averting $98,256.00 in unnecessary dwell time charges in this study population alone.
CONCLUSION: Type of disposition, case management timely consultation, and disposition to discharge dwell time affect boarding and patient flow in a tertiary acute care hospital. Efficiency of the discharge process did not affect patient satisfaction relative to the perceived quality of discharge instruction and follow-up plan explanations. Prolonged disposition to discharge intervals result in unnecessary hospital bed occupancy thereby negatively impacting hospital finances while delivering no direct benefit to patients.

PMID: 29378577 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Association between emergency physician self-reported empathy and patient satisfaction.

Fri, 09/14/2018 - 07:53
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Association between emergency physician self-reported empathy and patient satisfaction.

PLoS One. 2018;13(9):e0204113

Authors: Wang H, Kline JA, Jackson BE, Laureano-Phillips J, Robinson RD, Cowden CD, d'Etienne JP, Arze SE, Zenarosa NR

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Higher physician self-reported empathy has been associated with higher overall patient satisfaction. However, more evidence-based research is needed to determine such association in an emergent care setting.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between physician self-reported empathy and after-care instant patient-to-provider satisfaction among Emergency Department (ED) healthcare providers with varying years of medical practice experience.
RESEARCH DESIGN: A prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care hospital ED.
METHODS: Forty-one providers interacted with 1,308 patients across 1,572 encounters from July 1 through October 31, 2016. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) was used to assess provider empathy. An after-care instant patient satisfaction survey, with questionnaires regarding patient-to-provider satisfaction specifically, was conducted prior to the patient moving out of the ED. The relation between physician empathy and patient satisfaction was estimated using risk ratios (RR) and their corresponding 95% confidence limits (CL) from log-binomial regression models.
RESULTS: Emergency Medicine (EM) residents had the lowest JSE scores (median 111; interquartile range [IQR]: 107-122) and senior physicians had the highest scores (median 119.5; IQR: 111-129). Similarly, EM residents had the lowest percentage of "very satisfied" responses (65%) and senior physicians had the highest reported percentage of "very satisfied" responses (69%). There was a modest positive association between JSE and satisfaction (RR = 1.04; 95% CL: 1.00, 1.07).
CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of a positive association between ED provider self-reported empathy and after-care instant patient-to-provider satisfaction. Overall higher empathy scores were associated with higher patient satisfaction, though minor heterogeneity occurred between different provider characteristics.

PMID: 30212564 [PubMed - in process]

Antibiotics versus No Antibiotics for the Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Diverticulitis: Review of the Evidence and Future Directions.

Wed, 09/12/2018 - 08:59
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Antibiotics versus No Antibiotics for the Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Diverticulitis: Review of the Evidence and Future Directions.

Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2018 Sep 11;:

Authors: Huston JM, Zuckerbraun BS, Moore LJ, Sanders JM, Duane TM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Acute diverticulitis occurs in 25% of individuals with diverticular disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Disease severity is classified as uncomplicated or complicated, with the latter including perforation, fistula, obstruction, or distant abscess. Uncomplicated diverticulitis often improves without surgery or invasive therapies. Administration of antibiotics is a standard of care for treatment of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis. However, recent data suggest antibiotics do not influence outcomes significantly. To address these conflicting approaches, the Surgical Infection Society hosted an Update Symposium at its 37th Annual Meeting examining the role of antibiotics in the treatment of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis. Here, we provide a synopsis of the symposium's findings and a brief review of recent prospective and randomized clinical trials on the topic.
METHODS: A search of Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library was performed for prospective series and randomized clinical trials published between January 1, 2010, and January 1, 2018, comparing outcomes of antibiotic versus no antibiotic therapy for acute uncomplicated diverticulitis.
RESULTS: We identified two single-center prospective series and two randomized clinical trials comparing outcomes for patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis treated with antibiotics versus no antibiotics.
CONCLUSION: Current evidence does not support administration of antibiotics to improve outcomes in carefully selected healthy patients with acute uncomplicated left-sided diverticulitis. Further studies should help identify specific subpopulations of patients who would derive benefit from antibiotic therapy and help define appropriate antibiotic regimens and treatment durations that minimize cost, adverse effects, and risk of anti-microbial resistance.

PMID: 30204549 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Lifestyle Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study.

Wed, 09/12/2018 - 08:59
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Lifestyle Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study.

Cancer. 2018 Sep 11;:

Authors: Zhang FF, Hudson MM, Huang IC, Bhakta N, Ness KK, Brinkman TM, Klosky J, Lu L, Chen F, Ojha RP, Lanctot JQ, Robison LL, Krull KR

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood cancer report poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Modifiable lifestyle factors such as nutrition and physical activity represent opportunities for interventions to improve HRQOL.
METHODS: The authors examined the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and HRQOL among 2480 adult survivors of childhood cancer in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study. Dietary intake, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption were assessed through questionnaires. Weight and height were measured in the clinic. HRQOL was evaluated using the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Survey. The physical component summary (PCS), mental component summary (MCS), and 8 domain scores of HRQOL were calculated. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate regression coefficients (β) associated with HRQOL differences.
RESULTS: Being physically active (PCS β = 3.10; and MCS β = 1.48) was associated with higher HRQOL whereas current cigarette smoking (PCS β = -2.30; and MCS β = -6.49) and obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 ) (PCS β = -3.29; and MCS β = -1.61) were associated with lower HRQOL in both the physical and mental domains. Better diet (Healthy Eating Index-2015) was associated with higher physical HRQOL (PCS β = 1.79). Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with higher physical (PCS β = 1.14) but lower mental (MCS β = -1.13) HRQOL (all P <.05). Adherence to multiple healthy lifestyle factors demonstrated a linear trend with high scores in both physical and mental HRQOL (highest vs lowest adherence: PCS β = 7.60; and MCS β = 5.76 [P for trend, <.0001]).
CONCLUSIONS: The association between healthy lifestyle factors and HRQOL is cumulative, underscoring the importance of promoting multiple healthy lifestyles to enhance HRQOL in long-term survivors of childhood cancer.

PMID: 30204245 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Socioeconomic factors and parity of access to robotic surgery in a county health system.

Wed, 09/12/2018 - 04:28
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Socioeconomic factors and parity of access to robotic surgery in a county health system.

J Robot Surg. 2018 Mar;12(1):35-41

Authors: Tatebe LC, Gray R, Tatebe K, Garcia F, Putty B

Abstract
Equal access to novel surgical technologies remains a policy concern as hospitals adopt robotic surgery with increasing prevalence. This study sought to determine whether socioeconomic factors influence access to robotic surgery. All laparoscopic and robotic fundoplications and paraesophageal hernia repairs performed by a surgical group over 6 years at a county and two neighboring private hospitals were identified. Robotic use by hospital setting, age, gender, reported ethnicity, estimated income, insurance payer, and diagnosis were examined. Of 418 patients identified, 180 (43%) presented to the county hospital, where subjects were younger (51.1 versus 56.2 years, p < 0.001) with lower estimated income ($50,289 versus $62,959, p < 0.001). In the county setting, there was no difference in reported ethnicity (p = 0.169), estimated income (p = 0.081), or insurance payer (p = 0.535) between groups treated laparoscopically versus robotically. There was no difference in the treatment groups by estimated income in the private hospital setting (p = 0.308). Overall higher estimated income and insurance payer were associated with a higher chance of undergoing robotic procedures (p < 0.001). Presence of a paraesophageal hernia was associated with increased chance of undergoing robotic therapy in all comparisons (p < 0.001). No disparity in access to robotic surgery offered in the county hospital was observed based on age, gender, reported ethnicity, estimated income, or insurance payer. Patients with higher income and private insurers were more likely to present to the private hospital setting where robotics is utilized more often. The presence of a paraesophageal hernia was a significant factor in determining robotic therapy in both settings.

PMID: 28247092 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Choosing Wisely at the End of Life: Use of Shorter Courses of Palliative Radiation Therapy for Bone Metastasis.

Sun, 09/09/2018 - 04:28
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Choosing Wisely at the End of Life: Use of Shorter Courses of Palliative Radiation Therapy for Bone Metastasis.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018 Oct 01;102(2):320-324

Authors: Wallace AS, Fiveash JB, Williams CP, Kvale E, Pisu M, Jackson BE, Rocque GB

Abstract
PURPOSE: American Society for Radiation Choosing Wisely guidelines recommend ≤10 fractions of radiation therapy (RT) for bone metastasis, with consideration for 1 fraction in patients with a poor prognosis. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate characteristic differences in guideline concordance to fractionation regimens in a modern cohort of older patients with a diagnosis of bone metastasis.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years treated with RT for bone metastasis from 2012 to 2015 were identified. Guideline-concordant RT fractionation was defined in the entire cohort as ≤10 fractions. Utilization of 1 fraction versus ≥2 fractions was analyzed in deceased patients. Patient demographic, disease, and facility characteristics associated with shorter fractionation were analyzed.
RESULTS: In 569 patients treated with RT, the median age at diagnosis was 73 years. The most common cancer types were lung (37%), genitourinary (26%), breast (15%), and gastrointestinal (10%). Among all patients, 34%, 30%, and 36% received 1 fraction, 2 to 10 fractions, and ≥11 fractions, respectively. In comparison with receipt of 1 to 10 fractions, receipt of ≥11 fractions was associated with a $1467 increase in per-patient cost to Medicare during the calendar quarter of RT. Almost two-thirds of patients who died within 30 days of RT completion were treated with >1 fraction.
CONCLUSIONS: Although guideline concordance was high overall, a large number of patients received longer courses of RT at the end of life. Strong consideration should be made for utilization of shorter courses, particularly in patients with a limited prognosis.

PMID: 30191866 [PubMed - in process]

Psychological Attributes of Ultramarathoners.

Fri, 09/07/2018 - 14:51
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Psychological Attributes of Ultramarathoners.

Wilderness Environ Med. 2018 03;29(1):66-71

Authors: Buck K, Spittler J, Reed A, Khodaee M

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: As the popularity of ultramarathon participation increases, there still exists a lack of understanding of the unique psychological characteristics of ultramarathon runners. The current study sought to investigate some of the psychological and behavioral factors that are involved in ultramarathon running.
METHODS: We obtained information from participants of the Bear Chase Trail Race via an online survey. This race is a single-day, multidistance race consisting of a 10 k, half marathon, 50 k, 50 mi, and 100 k run in Lakewood, Colorado, at a base altitude of 1680 m with total altitude in climbs ranging from 663 to 2591 m. We correlated information from the Exercise Addiction Inventory and the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and demographic information with race finish times.
RESULTS: Out of 200 runners who started the race, 98 (48%) completed the survey. Over half of the runners were men (61.2%), and the average age was 39.0 years (SD±8.9; range 21-64 years). A number of respondents (20%) screened positive for exercise addiction concerns. Approximately 20% of our sample screened positive for depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-2 score >3). The majority of participants reported receiving strong social support from current partners with regard to their ultramarathon running training time and goals.
CONCLUSIONS: Although only a screening, the number of positive screens on the Exercise Addiction Inventory suggests use of screening measures with an ultramarathon running population. Athletes with positive screening tests should be fully evaluated for depression and exercise addiction because this would enable appropriate athlete support and treatment referral.

PMID: 29336959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Impact of Nonconcordance With NCCN Guidelines on Resource Utilization, Cost, and Mortality in De Novo Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Thu, 09/06/2018 - 08:01
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Impact of Nonconcordance With NCCN Guidelines on Resource Utilization, Cost, and Mortality in De Novo Metastatic Breast Cancer.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2018 Sep;16(9):1084-1091

Authors: Rocque GB, Williams CP, Jackson BE, Ingram SA, Halilova KI, Pisu M, Kenzik KM, Azuero A, Forero A, Bhatia S

Abstract
Background: The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) have directed the care of patients with cancer for >20 years. Payers are implementing guideline-based pathway programs that restrict reimbursement for non-guideline-based care to control costs, yet evidence regarding impact of guidelines on outcomes, including mortality, Medicare costs, and healthcare utilization, is limited. Patients and Methods: This analysis evaluated concordance of first treatment with NCCN Guidelines for women with de novo stage IV metastatic breast cancer (MBC) included within the SEER-Medicare linked database and diagnosed between 2007 and 2013. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between mortality and guideline concordance. Linear mixed-effects and generalized linear models were used to evaluate total cost to Medicare and rates of healthcare utilization by concordance status. Results: We found that 19% of patients (188/988) with de novo MBC received nonconcordant treatment. Patients receiving nonconcordant treatment were more likely to be younger and have hormone receptor-negative and HER2-positive MBC. The most common category of nonconcordant treatment was use of adjuvant regimens in the metastatic setting (40%). Adjusted mortality risk was similar for patients receiving concordant and nonconcordant treatments (hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% confidence limit [CL], 0.69, 1.05). When considering category of nonconcordance, patients receiving adjuvant regimens in the metastatic setting had a decreased risk of mortality (HR, 0.60; 95% CL, 0.43, 0.84). Nonconcordant treatments were associated with $1,867 higher average Medicare costs per month compared with concordant treatments (95% CL, $918, $2,817). Single-agent HER2-targeted therapy was the highest costing category of nonconcordance at $3,008 (95% CL, $1,014, $5,001). Healthcare utilization rates were similar for patients receiving concordant and nonconcordant treatments. Conclusions: Despite a lack of survival benefit, concordant care was associated with lower costs, suggesting potential benefit to increasing standardization of care. These findings may influence policy decisions regarding implementation of pathway programs as health systems transition to value-based models.

PMID: 30181420 [PubMed - in process]

Examining injustice appraisals in a racially diverse sample of individuals with chronic low back pain.

Wed, 09/05/2018 - 07:29
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Examining injustice appraisals in a racially diverse sample of individuals with chronic low back pain.

J Pain. 2018 Sep 01;:

Authors: Trost Z, Sturgeon J, Guck A, Ziadni M, Nowlin L, Goodin B, Scott W

Abstract
Injustice perception has emerged as a risk factor for problematic musculoskeletal pain outcomes. Despite the prevalence and impact of chronic low back pain (CLBP) no study has addressed injustice appraisals specifically among individuals with CLBP. In addition, despite racial/ethnic disparities in pain, existing injustice research has relied almost exclusively on White/Caucasian participant samples. The current study examined associations between perceived injustice and pain, disability, and depression in a diverse community sample of individuals with CLBP (N=137) - 51(37.2%) White, 43(31.4%) Hispanic, 43(31.4%) Black or African American). Anger variables were tested as potential mediators of these relationships. Controlling for demographic and pain-related covariates, perceived injustice accounted for unique variance in self-reported depression and disability outcomes, but not pain intensity. State and trait anger, and anger inhibition mediated association between perceived injustice and depression; no additional mediation by anger was observed. Significant racial differences were also noted. Compared to White and Hispanic participants, Black participants reported higher levels of perceived injustice related to CLBP, as well as higher depression, and pain-related disability. Black participants also reported higher pain intensity than White participants. Current findings provide initial evidence regarding the role of injustice perception specifically in the context of CLBP and within a racially diverse participant sample. Results highlight the need for greater diversity within injustice and CLBP research as well as research regarding socially-informed antecedents of injustice appraisals.
PERSPECTIVE: Perceived injustice predicted worse outcomes in chronic low back pain, with effects partially mediated by anger. Black participants reported worse pain outcomes and higher injustice perception than White or Hispanic counterparts. Given racial inequities within broader health and pain-specific outcomes, this topic is critical for CLBP and perceived injustice research.

PMID: 30179671 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Measuring Provider Compliance with an Institution-Based Clinical Pathway for Diverticulitis Using Radiologic Criteria.

Wed, 09/05/2018 - 07:29
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Measuring Provider Compliance with an Institution-Based Clinical Pathway for Diverticulitis Using Radiologic Criteria.

Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2018 Sep 04;:

Authors: Gonzalez G, Montemayor E, Sanders JM, Burton M, Tessier JM, Duane TM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Diverticulitis remains a common disease encountered in the acute care setting. Management strategies have been developed to guide treatment decisions based on imaging. By using a multi-faceted clinical pathway approach, a standardized method of diagnosing and categorizing disease severity can be performed in order to guide appropriate management. This study evaluated provider compliance with an institutional clinical pathway designed to guide management of diverticulitis.
METHODS: An institutional clinical pathway was developed to manage diverticulitis, including radiologic classification, primary service line assignment, interventional strategies, and antimicrobial treatment. To assess provider compliance with the algorithm, we queried the institutional acute diverticulitis database for patients admitted from May 19, 2016 to February 8, 2017, which identified 83 patients. Provider compliance with the pathway was assessed using subgroup analysis of radiologic documentation (modified Neff [mNeff] classification), primary service assignment, and interventions (i.e., interventional radiology [IR] and antimicrobial agents).
RESULTS: The cohort represented a diverse group of mNeff classifications, predominantly Stage 0. Surgical interventions occurred in 10.8% of the cohort. Antimicrobial agents were administered to 88.0% and 78.3% of the outpatients and inpatients, respectively. Patients received a total duration of antimicrobial therapy (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) of 10.2 ± 5.1 days. Overall compliance occurred in 10% of the patients. Compliance with radiologic documentation, antimicrobial choice, and antimicrobial duration were 90.4%, 20.5%, and 69.9%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall compliance with the clinical pathway was poor, except as it related to compliance with radiologic documentation, appropriate assignment to surgical service line, and antimicrobial duration. These results suggest areas for future improvement to augment compliance with the clinical pathway.

PMID: 30179571 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effect of a Strategy of Initial Laryngeal Tube Insertion vs Endotracheal Intubation on 72-Hour Survival in Adults With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Sun, 09/02/2018 - 04:28
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Effect of a Strategy of Initial Laryngeal Tube Insertion vs Endotracheal Intubation on 72-Hour Survival in Adults With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA. 2018 Aug 28;320(8):769-778

Authors: Wang HE, Schmicker RH, Daya MR, Stephens SW, Idris AH, Carlson JN, Colella MR, Herren H, Hansen M, Richmond NJ, Puyana JCJ, Aufderheide TP, Gray RE, Gray PC, Verkest M, Owens PC, Brienza AM, Sternig KJ, May SJ, Sopko GR, Weisfeldt ML, Nichol G

Abstract
Importance: Emergency medical services (EMS) commonly perform endotracheal intubation (ETI) or insertion of supraglottic airways, such as the laryngeal tube (LT), on patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The optimal method for OHCA advanced airway management is unknown.
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of a strategy of initial LT insertion vs initial ETI in adults with OHCA.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter pragmatic cluster-crossover clinical trial involving EMS agencies from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. The trial included 3004 adults with OHCA and anticipated need for advanced airway management who were enrolled from December 1, 2015, to November 4, 2017. The final date of follow-up was November 10, 2017.
Interventions: Twenty-seven EMS agencies were randomized in 13 clusters to initial airway management strategy with LT (n = 1505 patients) or ETI (n = 1499 patients), with crossover to the alternate strategy at 3- to 5-month intervals.
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 72-hour survival. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation, survival to hospital discharge, favorable neurological status at hospital discharge (Modified Rankin Scale score ≤3), and key adverse events.
Results: Among 3004 enrolled patients (median [interquartile range] age, 64 [53-76] years, 1829 [60.9%] men), 3000 were included in the primary analysis. Rates of initial airway success were 90.3% with LT and 51.6% with ETI. Seventy-two hour survival was 18.3% in the LT group vs 15.4% in the ETI group (adjusted difference, 2.9% [95% CI, 0.2%-5.6%]; P = .04). Secondary outcomes in the LT group vs ETI group were return of spontaneous circulation (27.9% vs 24.3%; adjusted difference, 3.6% [95% CI, 0.3%-6.8%]; P = .03); hospital survival (10.8% vs 8.1%; adjusted difference, 2.7% [95% CI, 0.6%-4.8%]; P = .01); and favorable neurological status at discharge (7.1% vs 5.0%; adjusted difference, 2.1% [95% CI, 0.3%-3.8%]; P = .02). There were no significant differences in oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal injury (0.2% vs 0.3%), airway swelling (1.1% vs 1.0%), or pneumonia or pneumonitis (26.1% vs 22.3%).
Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with OHCA, a strategy of initial LT insertion was associated with significantly greater 72-hour survival compared with a strategy of initial ETI. These findings suggest that LT insertion may be considered as an initial airway management strategy in patients with OHCA, but limitations of the pragmatic design, practice setting, and ETI performance characteristics suggest that further research is warranted.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02419573.

PMID: 30167699 [PubMed - in process]

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