Search this website

Recent Research Articles from JPS Health Network

Subscribe to Recent Research Articles from JPS Health Network feed Recent Research Articles from JPS Health Network
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="JPS Health Network" OR "John Peter Smith" NOT "Japan Pancreas Society"
Updated: 1 hour 28 min ago

A Research Agenda for Assessment and Management of Psychosis in Emergency Department Patients.

Tue, 03/19/2019 - 07:54
Related Articles

A Research Agenda for Assessment and Management of Psychosis in Emergency Department Patients.

West J Emerg Med. 2019 Mar;20(2):403-408

Authors: Peltzer-Jones J, Nordstrom K, Currier G, Berlin JS, Singh C, Schneider S

Abstract
Introduction: Emergency departments (ED) manage a wide variety of critical medical presentations. Traumatic, neurologic, and cardiac crises are among the most prevalent types of emergencies treated in an ED setting. The high volume of presentations has led to collaborative partnerships in research and process development between experts in emergency medicine (EM) and other disciplines. While psychosis is a medical emergency frequently treated in the ED, there remains a paucity of evidence-based literature highlighting best practices for management of psychotic presentations in the ED. In the absence of collaborative research, development of best practice guidelines cannot begin. A working group convened to develop a set of high-priority research questions to address the knowledge gaps in the care of psychotic patients in the ED. This article is the product of a subgroup considering "Special Populations: Psychotic Spectrum Disorders," from the 2016 Coalition on Psychiatric Emergencies first Research Consensus Conference on Acute Mental Illness.
Methods: Participants were identified with expertise in psychosis from EM, emergency psychiatry, emergency psychology, clinical research, governmental agencies, and patient advocacy groups. Background literature reviews were performed prior to the in-person meeting. A nominal group technique was employed to develop group consensus on the highest priority research gaps. Following the nominal group technique, input was solicited from all participants during the meeting, questions were iteratively focused and revised, voted on, and then ranked by importance.
Results: The group developed 28 separate questions. After clarification and voting, the group identified six high-priority research areas. These questions signify the perceived gaps in psychosis research in emergency settings. Questions were further grouped into two topic areas: screening and identification; and intervention and management strategies.
Conclusion: While psychosis has become a more common presentation in the ED, standardized screening, intervention, and outcome measurement for psychosis has not moved beyond attention to agitation management. As improved outpatient-intervention protocols are developed for treatment of psychosis, it is imperative that parallel protocols are developed for delivery in the ED setting.

PMID: 30881564 [PubMed - in process]

Opportunities for Research in Mental Health Emergencies: Executive Summary and Methodology.

Tue, 03/19/2019 - 07:54
Related Articles

Opportunities for Research in Mental Health Emergencies: Executive Summary and Methodology.

West J Emerg Med. 2019 Mar;20(2):380-385

Authors: Wilson MP, Shenvi C, Rives L, Nordstrom K, Schneider S, Gerardi M

Abstract
Introduction: Despite the ever-increasing numbers of mental health patients presenting to United States emergency departments, there are large gaps in knowledge about acute care of the behavioral health patient. To address this important problem, the Coalition on Psychiatric Emergencies convened a research consensus conference in December 2016 consisting of clinical researchers, clinicians from emergency medicine, psychiatry and psychology, and representatives from governmental agencies and patient advocacy groups.
Methods: Participants used a standardized methodology to select and rank research questions in the order of importance to both researchers and patients.
Results: Three working groups (geriatrics, substance use disorders, and psychosis) reached consensus on 26 questions within their respective domains. These questions are summarized in this document.
Conclusion: The research consensus conference is the first of its kind to include non-clinicians in helping identify knowledge gaps in behavioral emergencies. It is hoped that these questions will prove useful to prioritize future research within the specialty.

PMID: 30881561 [PubMed - in process]

Free-Flap Reconstruction of the Mandible.

Thu, 03/14/2019 - 07:03
Related Articles

Free-Flap Reconstruction of the Mandible.

Semin Plast Surg. 2019 Feb;33(1):46-53

Authors: Kim RY, Sokoya M, Ducic Y, Williams F

Abstract
Mandible reconstruction has evolved over the years with advances in surgical options and three-dimensional technology. Although nonvascularized bone grafting is still used, vascularized flaps show advantages with immediate reconstruction, the possibility of immediate dental implants, and the ability to reconstruct composite defects of both soft tissue and bone. This article discusses current vascularized techniques for mandible reconstruction. While each reconstructive method has advantages and disadvantages, a defect-based reconstruction focused on full rehabilitation allows surgeons to plan and counsel the patient for the best available reconstruction.

PMID: 30863212 [PubMed]

Free Flap Reconstruction of the Maxilla.

Thu, 03/14/2019 - 07:03
Related Articles

Free Flap Reconstruction of the Maxilla.

Semin Plast Surg. 2019 Feb;33(1):30-37

Authors: Vincent A, Burkes J, Williams F, Ducic Y

Abstract
Tumors of the maxilla and midface are some of the most difficult to manage, not only in terms of treatment but also in terms of achieving acceptable orofacial reconstruction. Today, free flaps dominate the reconstructive field. Many patients can achieve successful reconstruction after free flap transfer with a return of intelligible speech, a regular diet, and acceptable cosmesis. Herein, the authors review free flap reconstruction of the maxilla, with a focus on the classifications of defects, when obturators are appropriate, types and sources of free flaps, and complications for which to beware.

PMID: 30863210 [PubMed]

Primary Care Physician Characteristics Associated with Low Value Care Spending.

Sun, 03/10/2019 - 06:30
Related Articles

Primary Care Physician Characteristics Associated with Low Value Care Spending.

J Am Board Fam Med. 2019 Mar-Apr;32(2):218-225

Authors: Barreto TW, Chung Y, Wingrove P, Young RA, Petterson S, Bazemore A, Liaw W

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Previous work has shown that $210 billion may be spent annually on unnecessary medical services and has identified patient and hospital characteristics associated with low value care (LVC). However, little is known about the association between primary care physician (PCP) characteristics and LVC spending. The objective of this study was to assess this association.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis by using Medicare claims data to identify LVC and American Medical Association Masterfile data for PCP characteristics. We included PCPs of adults aged 65 years and older who were enrolled in Medicare in 2011. We measured Medicare spending per attributed patient on 8 low value services.
RESULTS: Our final sample contained 6,873 PCPs with 1,078,840 attributed patients. Lower per-patient LVC Medicare spending was associated with the following PCP characteristics: allopathic training, smaller Medicare patient panel, practiced family medicine, practiced in the Midwest region, were a recent graduate, or practiced in rural areas. The largest associations were seen in Medicare patient panel size and geographic region. The average per-patient LVC spending was $14.67. LVC spending among PCPs with small patient panels was $3.98 less per patient relative to those with larger panels. PCPs in the Midwest had $2.80 less per patient LVC spending than those in the Northeast.
CONCLUSION: Our analysis suggests that LVC services are associated with specific PCP characteristics. Further research should assess the strength of these associations, and future policy efforts should focus on systemic interventions to reduce LVC spending.

PMID: 30850458 [PubMed - in process]

Status of Emergency Department Seventy-Two Hour Return Visits Among Homeless Patients.

Wed, 03/06/2019 - 07:17
Related Articles

Status of Emergency Department Seventy-Two Hour Return Visits Among Homeless Patients.

J Clin Med Res. 2019 Mar;11(3):157-164

Authors: Knowles H, Huggins C, Robinson RD, Mbugua R, Laureano-Phillips J, Trivedi SM, Kirby J, Zenarosa NR, Wang H

Abstract
Background: We aim to externally validate the status of emergency department (ED) appropriate utilization and 72-h ED returns among homeless patients.
Methods: This is a retrospective single-center observational study. Patients were divided into two groups (homeless versus non-homeless). Patients' general characteristics, clinical variables, ED appropriate utilization, and ED return disposition deviations were compared and analyzed separately.
Results: Study enrolled a total of 63,990 ED visits. Homeless patients comprised 9.3% (5,926) of visits. Higher ED 72-h returns occurred among homeless patients in comparison to the non-homeless patients (17% versus 5%, P < 0.001). Rate of significant ED disposition deviations (e.g., admission, triage to operation room, or death) on return visits were lower in homeless patients when compared to non-homeless patient populations (15% versus 23%, P < 0.001).
Conclusions: Though ED return rate was higher among homeless patients, return visit case management seems appropriate, indicating that 72-h ED returns might not be an optimal healthcare quality measurement for homeless patients.

PMID: 30834037 [PubMed]

Laryngeal Spindle Cell/Pleomorphic Lipoma: A Case Report. An In-Depth Review of the Adipocytic Tumors.

Mon, 03/04/2019 - 05:45

Laryngeal Spindle Cell/Pleomorphic Lipoma: A Case Report. An In-Depth Review of the Adipocytic Tumors.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Feb 07;:

Authors: Burkes JN, Campos L, Williams FC, Kim RY

Abstract
Spindle cell and pleomorphic lipomas (SC/PLs) are a rare form of lipomatous tumors. They typically occur as a slow-growing localized mass in the subcutaneous fatty tissue of the posterior neck, back, and shoulders. This benign variant represents less than 1.5% of all lipomas and is relatively uncommon in the head and neck area. A manifestation in the larynx is even rarer. Unlike other anatomic locations, laryngeal lipomas can pose life-threatening symptoms secondary to acute obstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract. This report presents a case of a large SC/PL of the larynx associated with hoarseness, dysphagia, globus sensation, and neck fullness. The tumor was successfully removed through an anterior transcervical approach with infrahyoid myotomy. The authors review the literature concerning head and neck adipocytic tumors with spindle cells and discuss the difficulties in distinguishing SC/PLs from liposarcomas. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case to be reported in the oral and maxillofacial surgery literature.

PMID: 30826392 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Severity Grade is valid and generalizable in adhesive small bowel obstruction.

Sat, 03/02/2019 - 05:11
Related Articles

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Severity Grade is valid and generalizable in adhesive small bowel obstruction.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 02;84(2):372-378

Authors: Hernandez MC, Haddad NN, Cullinane DC, Yeh DD, Wydo S, Inaba K, Duane TM, Pakula A, Skinner R, Rodriguez CJ, Dunn J, Sams VG, Zielinski MD, Choudhry A, Turay D, Yune JM, Watras J, Widom KA, Cull J, Toschlog EA, Graybill JC, EAST SBO Workgroup

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) anatomic severity grading system for adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) was validated at a single institution. We aimed to externally validate the AAST ASBO grading system using the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional small bowel obstruction prospective observational study.
METHODS: Adults (age ≥ 18) with (ASBO) were included. Baseline demographics, physiologic parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate), laboratory tests (lactate, hemoglobin, creatinine, leukocytosis), imaging findings, operative details, length of stay, and Clavien-Dindo complications were collected. The AAST ASBO grades were assigned by two independent reviewers based on imaging findings. Kappa statistic, univariate, and multivariable analyses were performed.
RESULTS: There were 635 patients with a mean (±SD) age of 61 ± 17.8 years, 51% female, and mean body mass index was 27.5 ± 8.1. The AAST ASBO grades were: grade I (n = 386, 60.5%), grade II (n = 135, 21.2%), grade III (n = 59, 9.2%), grade IV (n = 55, 8.6%). Initial management included: nonoperative (n = 385; 61%), laparotomy (n = 200, 31.3%), laparoscopy (n = 13, 2.0%), and laparoscopy converted to laparotomy (n = 37, 5.8%). An increased median [IQR] AAST ASBO grade was associated with need for conversion to an open procedure (2 [1-3] vs. 3 [2-4], p = 0.008), small bowel resection (2 [2-2] vs. 3 [2-4], p < 0.0001), postoperative temporary abdominal closure (2 [2-3] vs. 3 [3-4], p < 0.0001), and stoma creation (2 [2-3] vs. 3 [2-4], p < 0.0001). Increasing AAST grade was associated with increased anatomic severity noted on imaging findings, longer duration of stay, need for intensive care, increased rate of complication, and higher Clavien-Dindo complication grade.
CONCLUSION: The AAST ASBO severity grading system has predictive validity for important clinical outcomes and allows for standardization across institutions, providers, and future research focused on optimizing preoperative diagnosis and management algorithms.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.

PMID: 29117026 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Association between emergency physician self-reported empathy and patient satisfaction.

Fri, 03/01/2019 - 06:54
Related Articles

Association between emergency physician self-reported empathy and patient satisfaction.

PLoS One. 2018;13(9):e0204113

Authors: Wang H, Kline JA, Jackson BE, Laureano-Phillips J, Robinson RD, Cowden CD, d'Etienne JP, Arze SE, Zenarosa NR

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Higher physician self-reported empathy has been associated with higher overall patient satisfaction. However, more evidence-based research is needed to determine such association in an emergent care setting.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between physician self-reported empathy and after-care instant patient-to-provider satisfaction among Emergency Department (ED) healthcare providers with varying years of medical practice experience.
RESEARCH DESIGN: A prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care hospital ED.
METHODS: Forty-one providers interacted with 1,308 patients across 1,572 encounters from July 1 through October 31, 2016. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) was used to assess provider empathy. An after-care instant patient satisfaction survey, with questionnaires regarding patient-to-provider satisfaction specifically, was conducted prior to the patient moving out of the ED. The relation between physician empathy and patient satisfaction was estimated using risk ratios (RR) and their corresponding 95% confidence limits (CL) from log-binomial regression models.
RESULTS: Emergency Medicine (EM) residents had the lowest JSE scores (median 111; interquartile range [IQR]: 107-122) and senior physicians had the highest scores (median 119.5; IQR: 111-129). Similarly, EM residents had the lowest percentage of "very satisfied" responses (65%) and senior physicians had the highest reported percentage of "very satisfied" responses (69%). There was a modest positive association between JSE and satisfaction (RR = 1.04; 95% CL: 1.00, 1.07).
CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of a positive association between ED provider self-reported empathy and after-care instant patient-to-provider satisfaction. Overall higher empathy scores were associated with higher patient satisfaction, though minor heterogeneity occurred between different provider characteristics.

PMID: 30212564 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Actinomyces turicensis Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infection of the Thigh in a Diabetic Male.

Sat, 02/23/2019 - 06:42
Related Articles

Actinomyces turicensis Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infection of the Thigh in a Diabetic Male.

Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2019 Feb 21;:

Authors: Panwar K, Duane TM, Tessier JM, Patel K, Sanders JM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing soft-tissue infections are a devastating infection that is rarely caused by Actinomyces spp.
CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old obese previously healthy male presented to the emergency department with diabetic ketoacidosis. The patient developed systemic signs of infections and right medial thigh pain subsequently diagnosed as a necrotizing soft-tissue infection. Successful treatment included prompt surgical intervention and initiation of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs.
CONCLUSION: Actinomyces turicensis may be the pathogen causing certain necrotizing soft-tissue infections. Clinicians should consider the possibility that this organism represents a true pathogen and not colonization/contamination.

PMID: 30789313 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Radiographic Prepatellar Fat Thickness Ratio Correlates With Infection Risk After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

Thu, 02/14/2019 - 05:10
Related Articles

The Radiographic Prepatellar Fat Thickness Ratio Correlates With Infection Risk After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty. 2018 07;33(7):2251-2255

Authors: Wagner RA, Hogan SP, Burge JR, Bates CM, Sanchez HB

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with complications after a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Surgical site infection (SSI) after TKA is one of the feared complications as it increases revision rates, costs, and stress to the patient. There is conflicting evidence in the literature regarding body mass index (BMI) and risk of infection after TKA, and some studies have suggested that site-specific fat distribution may be a better metric for determining risk of postoperative infections. Here, we investigate the correlation of soft tissue distribution about the knee to SSI after TKA.
METHODS: We retrospectively review 572 patients who underwent primary TKA at a single institution from 2006 to 2010. We introduce the prepatellar fat thickness ratio (PFTR) as a radiographic means to quantitatively assess fat distribution about the knee and evaluate this measurement's ability to assess the risk of developing an SSI after TKA.
RESULTS: The PFTR was shown to be a better predictor of SSI than BMI in both the univariate (P = .05) and multivariate (P = .01) analyses.
CONCLUSION: Although BMI cannot fully account for variations in adipose distribution, the PFTR may account for this variability and may be a helpful tool for assessing a patient's preoperative risk of SSI after TKA.

PMID: 29555491 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

HEART Score Risk Stratification of Low-Risk Chest Pain Patients in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Wed, 02/06/2019 - 05:47
Related Articles

HEART Score Risk Stratification of Low-Risk Chest Pain Patients in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Ann Emerg Med. 2019 Feb 01;:

Authors: Laureano-Phillips J, Robinson RD, Aryal S, Blair S, Wilson D, Boyd K, Schrader CD, Zenarosa NR, Wang H

Abstract
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis are to appraise the evidence in regard to the diagnostic accuracy of a low-risk History, ECG, Age, Risk Factors, and Troponin (HEART) score for prediction of major adverse cardiac events in emergency department (ED) patients. These included 4 subgroup analyses: by geographic region, the use of a modified low-risk HEART score (traditional HEART score [0 to 3] in addition to negative troponin results), using conventional versus high-sensitivity troponin assays in the HEART score, and a comparison of different post-ED-discharge patient follow-up intervals.
METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database for studies on the diagnostic performance of low-risk HEART scores to predict major adverse cardiac events among ED chest pain patients. Two reviewers independently screened articles for inclusion, assessed the quality of studies with both an adapted Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies version 2 tool and an internally developed tool that combined components of the Quality in Prognostic Studies; Checklist for Critical Appraisal and Data Extraction for Systematic Reviews of Prediction Modelling Studies; and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated.
RESULTS: There were 25 studies published from 2010 to 2017, with a total of 25,266 patients included in the final meta-analysis, of whom 9,919 (39.3%) were deemed to have low-risk HEART scores (0 to 3). Among patients with low-risk HEART scores, short-term major adverse cardiac events (30 days to 6 weeks) occurred in 2.1% of the population (182/8,832) compared with 21.9% of patients (3,290/15,038) with non-low-risk HEART scores (4 to 10). For patients with HEART scores of 0 to 3, the pooled sensitivity of short-term major adverse cardiac event predictions was 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93 to 0.98), specificity was 0.42 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.49), positive predictive value was 0.19 (95% CI 0.14 to 0.24), negative predictive value was 0.99 (95% CI 0.98 to 0.99), positive likelihood ratio was 1.66 (95% CI 1.50 to 1.85), and negative likelihood ratio was 0.09 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.15). Subgroup analysis showed that lower short-term major adverse cardiac events occurred among North American patients (0.7%), occurred when modified low-risk HEART score was used (0.8%), or occurred when high-sensitivity troponin was used for low-risk HEART score calculations (0.8%).
CONCLUSION: In this meta-analysis, despite its use in different patient populations, the troponin type used, and timeline of follow-up, a low-risk HEART score had high sensitivity, negative predictive value, and negative likelihood ratio for predicting short-term major adverse cardiac events, although risk of bias and statistical heterogeneity were high.

PMID: 30718010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Improving perceptions of empathy in patients undergoing low-yield computerized tomographic imaging in the emergency department.

Tue, 02/05/2019 - 07:58
Related Articles

Improving perceptions of empathy in patients undergoing low-yield computerized tomographic imaging in the emergency department.

Patient Educ Couns. 2018 04;101(4):717-722

Authors: Lin MP, Probst MA, Puskarich MA, Dehon E, Kuehl DR, Wang RC, Hess EP, Butler K, Runyon MS, Wang H, Courtney DM, Muckley B, Hobgood CD, Hall CL, Kline JA

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We assessed emergency department (ED) patient perceptions of how physicians can improve their language to determine patient preferences for 11 phrases to enhance physician empathy toward the goal of reducing low-value advanced imaging.
METHODS: Multi-center survey study of low-risk ED patients undergoing computerized tomography (CT) scanning.
RESULTS: We enroled 305 participants across nine sites. The statement "I have carefully considered what you told me about what brought you here today" was most frequently rated as important (88%). The statement "I have thought about the cost of your medical care to you today" was least frequently rated as important (59%). Participants preferred statements indicating physicians had considered their "vital signs and physical examination" (86%), "past medical history" (84%), and "what prior research tells me about your condition" (79%). Participants also valued statements conveying risks of testing, including potential kidney injury (78%) and radiation (77%).
CONCLUSION: The majority of phrases were identified as important. Participants preferred statements conveying cognitive reassurance, medical knowledge and risks of testing.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Our findings suggest specific phrases have the potential to enhance ED patient perceptions of physician empathy. Further research is needed to determine whether statements to convey empathy affect diagnostic testing rates.

PMID: 29173841 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Addressing Mental Health Needs among Physicians.

Sat, 02/02/2019 - 15:24

Addressing Mental Health Needs among Physicians.

South Med J. 2019 Feb;112(2):67-69

Authors: Buck K, Grace A, Runyan T, Brown-Berchtold L

PMID: 30708367 [PubMed - in process]

Lower Bone Mineral Density is Associated with Intertrochanteric Hip Fracture.

Tue, 01/15/2019 - 10:54
Related Articles

Lower Bone Mineral Density is Associated with Intertrochanteric Hip Fracture.

Arch Bone Jt Surg. 2018 Nov;6(6):517-522

Authors: Bernstein DN, Davis JT, Fairbanks C, McWilliam-Ross K, Ring D, Sanchez HB

Abstract
Background: A better understanding of how bone mineral density and vitamin D levels are associated with femoral neck and intertrochanteric hip fractures may help inform healthcare providers. We asked: 1) In patients age ≥ 55 years, is there a difference in quantitative ultrasound of the heel (QUS) t-score between patients with fractures of the femoral neck and those with fractures of the intertrochanteric region, accounting for other factors 2) In patients age ≥ 55 years, is there a difference in vitamin D level between those with fractures of the femoral neck and those with fractures of the intertrochanteric region, accounting for other factors? 3) Is there an association between vitamin D level and QUS t-score?
Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 1,030 patients were identified using CPT codes for fixation of hip fractures between December 2010 and September 2013. Patients ≥ 55 years of age who underwent operative management for a hip fracture following a fall from standing height were included. Three orthopaedic surgeons categorized fracture type using patient radiographs. Upon hospital admission, QUS t-scores and vitamin D levels were determined. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multivariable regression were performed.
Results: Accounting for potential confounders, patients with lower QUS t-scores were more likely to have intertrochanteric femur fractures than femoral neck fractures. In a bivariate analysis, there was no association between vitamin D level and either fracture type. There was no association between vitamin D level and bone mineral density.
Conclusion: Patients with lower bone density that fracture their hips are more likely to fracture in the intertrochanteric region than the femoral neck, but vitamin D levels are unrelated. Awareness of this association emphasizes the importance of bone mineral density screening to assist with intertrochanteric hip fracture prevention.
Level of evidence: III.

PMID: 30637307 [PubMed]

Longer Length of Stay Increases 1-year Readmission Rate in Patients Undergoing Hip Fracture Surgery.

Tue, 01/15/2019 - 10:54
Related Articles

Longer Length of Stay Increases 1-year Readmission Rate in Patients Undergoing Hip Fracture Surgery.

Arch Bone Jt Surg. 2018 Nov;6(6):492-500

Authors: Crijns TJ, Caton T, Teunis T, Davis JT, McWilliam-Ross K, Ring D, Sanchez HB

Abstract
Background: Proximal femur fractures are prevalent among the elderly and associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and early readmission. Early readmission is gaining popularity as a measure of quality of hospital care and can lower reimbursement. A better understanding of the patient and treatment characteristics associated with readmission may help inform program improvement initiatives. This study tested the primary null hypothesis that length of stay is not associated with higher rates of readmission within 30 days and 1 year in patients having operative treatment of a proximal femur fracture, accounting for discharge destination and other factors.
Methods: We performed a secondary analysis on a database of 1,061 adult patients, age 55 years or older, admitted for treatment of a proximal femoral fracture in an urban level 2 trauma center. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were created to account for the influence of age, sex, race, BMI, American Society of Anesthesiologists score (ASA), fracture type (AO/OTA), fixation type, operating surgeon, operative duration, and discharge destination.
Results: In multivariable logistic regression analysis, treatment by surgeon 4 was independently associated with a lower 30-day readmission rate. Higher one-year readmission rate was associated with a longer length of stay, ASA class 3, 4 and 5.
Conclusion: The observation that patients cared for by specific surgeons are more likely to experience readmission within one year of surgery for a fracture of the proximal femur, suggests that program improvements to identify and disseminate best practices might reduce readmission rates.
Level of evidence: III.

PMID: 30637304 [PubMed]

Knowledge, awareness, and attitude towards infection prevention and management among surgeons: identifying the surgeon champion.

Tue, 01/15/2019 - 10:54
Related Articles

Knowledge, awareness, and attitude towards infection prevention and management among surgeons: identifying the surgeon champion.

World J Emerg Surg. 2018;13:37

Authors: Sartelli M, Kluger Y, Ansaloni L, Coccolini F, Baiocchi GL, Hardcastle TC, Moore EE, May AK, Itani KMF, Fry DE, Boermeester MA, Guirao X, Napolitano L, Sawyer RG, Rasa K, Abu-Zidan FM, Adesunkanmi AK, Atanasov B, Augustin G, Bala M, Cainzos MA, Chichom-Mefire A, Cortese F, Damaskos D, Delibegovic S, Demetrashvili Z, De Simone B, Duane TM, Ghnnam W, Gkiokas G, Gomes CA, Hecker A, Karamarkovic A, Kenig J, Khokha V, Kong V, Isik A, Leppäniemi A, Litvin A, Lostoridis E, Machain GM, Marwah S, McFarlane M, Mesina C, Negoi I, Olaoye I, Pintar T, Pupelis G, Rems M, Rubio-Perez I, Sakakushev B, Segovia-Lohse H, Siribumrungwong B, Talving P, Ulrych J, Vereczkei AG, Labricciosa FM, Catena F

Abstract
Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of best practices of infection prevention and management, many surgeons worldwide fail to implement them. Evidence-based practices tend to be underused in routine practice. Surgeons with knowledge in surgical infections should provide feedback to prescribers and integrate best practices among surgeons and implement changes within their team. Identifying a local opinion leader to serve as a champion within the surgical department may be important. The "surgeon champion" can integrate best clinical practices of infection prevention and management, drive behavior change in their colleagues, and interact with both infection control teams in promoting antimicrobial stewardship.

PMID: 30140304 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The role of the built environment and private rooms for reducing central line-associated bloodstream infections.

Tue, 01/15/2019 - 10:54
Related Articles

The role of the built environment and private rooms for reducing central line-associated bloodstream infections.

PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0201002

Authors: O'Neill L, Park SH, Rosinia F

Abstract
Private hospital rooms are believed to offer some protective effect against hospital-acquired infections, including central line-associated bloodstream infections. Yet a recent meta-analysis found the evidence-base to be lacking from a policy perspective. We sought to determine whether private rooms were associated with a lower risk of central-line infections. We examined the discharge records of more than one million inpatients from 335 Texas hospitals to determine patients that stayed in private rooms. Patients who stayed in bay rooms had 64 percent more central line infections than patients who stayed in private rooms. Even after adjusting for relevant covariates, patients assigned to bay rooms had a 21 percent greater relative risk of a central line infection (p = 0.005), compared with patients assigned to private rooms. At the hospital level, a 10% increase in private rooms was associated with an 8.6% decrease in central line infections (p<0.001), regardless of individual patients' room assignment. This study demonstrates and validates the use of private rooms as a structural measure and independent predictor of hospital quality.

PMID: 30052672 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Choosing Wisely at the End of Life: Use of Shorter Courses of Palliative Radiation Therapy for Bone Metastasis.

Thu, 01/10/2019 - 08:00
Related Articles

Choosing Wisely at the End of Life: Use of Shorter Courses of Palliative Radiation Therapy for Bone Metastasis.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018 10 01;102(2):320-324

Authors: Wallace AS, Fiveash JB, Williams CP, Kvale E, Pisu M, Jackson BE, Rocque GB

Abstract
PURPOSE: American Society for Radiation Choosing Wisely guidelines recommend ≤10 fractions of radiation therapy (RT) for bone metastasis, with consideration for 1 fraction in patients with a poor prognosis. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate characteristic differences in guideline concordance to fractionation regimens in a modern cohort of older patients with a diagnosis of bone metastasis.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years treated with RT for bone metastasis from 2012 to 2015 were identified. Guideline-concordant RT fractionation was defined in the entire cohort as ≤10 fractions. Utilization of 1 fraction versus ≥2 fractions was analyzed in deceased patients. Patient demographic, disease, and facility characteristics associated with shorter fractionation were analyzed.
RESULTS: In 569 patients treated with RT, the median age at diagnosis was 73 years. The most common cancer types were lung (37%), genitourinary (26%), breast (15%), and gastrointestinal (10%). Among all patients, 34%, 30%, and 36% received 1 fraction, 2 to 10 fractions, and ≥11 fractions, respectively. In comparison with receipt of 1 to 10 fractions, receipt of ≥11 fractions was associated with a $1467 increase in per-patient cost to Medicare during the calendar quarter of RT. Almost two-thirds of patients who died within 30 days of RT completion were treated with >1 fraction.
CONCLUSIONS: Although guideline concordance was high overall, a large number of patients received longer courses of RT at the end of life. Strong consideration should be made for utilization of shorter courses, particularly in patients with a limited prognosis.

PMID: 30191866 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The EGS Grading Scale For Skin And Soft Tissue Infections Is Predictive Of Poor Outcomes : A Multicenter Validation Study.

Thu, 01/03/2019 - 07:38
Related Articles

The EGS Grading Scale For Skin And Soft Tissue Infections Is Predictive Of Poor Outcomes : A Multicenter Validation Study.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Dec 28;:

Authors: Savage SA, Li SW, Utter GH, Cox JA, Wydo SM, Cahill K, Sarani B, Holzmacher J, Duane TM, Gandhi RR, Zielinski MD, Ray-Zack M, Tierney J, Chapin T, Murphy PB, Vogt KN, Schroeppel TJ, Callaghan E, Kobayashi L, Coimbra R, Schuster KM, Gillaspie D, Timsina L, Louis A, Crandall M

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Over the last five years, the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) has developed grading scales for Emergency General Surgery (EGS) diseases. In a prior validation study using diverticulitis, the grading scales were predictive of complications and length of stay. As EGS encompasses diverse diseases, the purpose of this study was to validate the grading scale concept against a different disease process with a higher associated mortality. We hypothesized that the grading scale would be predictive of complications, length of stay and mortality in skin and soft tissue infections (STI).
METHODS: This multi-institutional trial encompassed 12 centers. Data collected included demographic variables, disease characteristics and outcomes such as mortality, overall complications, hospital and ICU length of stay. The EGS scale for STI was used to grade each infection and two surgeons graded each case to evaluate inter-rater reliability.
RESULTS: 1170 patients were included in this study. Inter-rater reliability was moderate (kappa coefficient 0.472-0.642, with 64-76% agreement). Higher grades (IV and V) corresponded to significantly higher LRINEC scores when compared with lower EGS grades. Patients with grade IV and V STI had significantly increased odds of all complications, as well as ICU and overall length of stay. These associations remained significant in logistic regression controlling for age, gender, comorbidities, mental status and hospital-level volume. Grade V disease was significantly associated with mortality as well.
CONCLUSION: This validation effort demonstrates that Grade IV and V STI are significantly predictive of complications, hospital length of stay and mortality. Though predictive ability does not improve linearly with STI grade, this is consistent with the clinical disease process, in which lower grades represent cellulitis and abscess and higher grades are invasive infections. This second validation study confirms the EGS grading scale as predictive, and easily used, in disparate disease processes.
STUDY TYPE: Prognostic/Epidemiologic retrospective multicenter trial LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

PMID: 30601458 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Pages