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Response to lubiprostone in chronic constipation is associated with increased mucus and mucin output: a randomized clinical trial.

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Response to lubiprostone in chronic constipation is associated with increased mucus and mucin output: a randomized clinical trial.

J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2019 Sep 01;28(3):263-264

Authors: Tarasiuk A, Milad M, Ahmed ST, Majewski M, Wallner G, Fichna J, Bashashati M, Sarosiek J

Abstract
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PMID: 31517334 [PubMed - in process]

Comparison of Pavlik Harness treatment regimens for reduced but dislocatable (Barlow positive) hips in infantile DDH.

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Comparison of Pavlik Harness treatment regimens for reduced but dislocatable (Barlow positive) hips in infantile DDH.

J Orthop. 2019 Sep-Oct;16(5):440-444

Authors: Neal D, Beckwith T, Hines A, Lee WC, Kilinc BE, Jo C, Kim H

Abstract
Objective: Although the Pavlik Harness (PH) is the most utilized treatment for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), the ideal treatment protocol (frequency of clinic visits in the first month and daily wear duration) for Barlow ​+ ​hips (reduced but dislocatable) has yet to be defined.
Methods: This study compared DDH patients with Barlow hips who were treated with 23 vs 24 h per day PH wear and weekly vs every other week visits. Clinical success was defined as a stable hip that did not require closed or open reduction, or the use of an abduction orthosis prior to achieving clinical stability. Radiographic success was based on the acetabular index at 2-year follow up.
Results: Sixty-five patients (75 hips/58 females) with Barlow hips had a mean age of presentation of 15 ± 12 days (range 4-70) and mean follow-up of 33 ± 17 months (range 6-90). There was no difference in clinical or radiographic success rate between 23 h vs 24 h wear groups (p > 0.99 both) or the Frequently vs Infrequent visit groups (p = 0.49 both). Overall clinical success rate was 97% (73/75 hips) and radiographic success rate at 2 years was 97% (58/60 hips).
Conclusion: A strict, weekly clinic visit and 24-h PH regimen may not be necessary to obtain good clinical and radiographic outcomes in infants presenting <6 months of age with Barlow positive hips.
Level of evidence: Therapeutic, Level III.

PMID: 31516214 [PubMed]

Fixed-dose gabapentin augmentation in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome: a retrospective, open-label study.

Dustin DeMoss, DO - Fri, 09/13/2019 - 11:33
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Fixed-dose gabapentin augmentation in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome: a retrospective, open-label study.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2019 Sep 06;:1-9

Authors: Andaluz A, DeMoss D, Claassen C, Blair S, Hsu J, Bakre S, Khan M, Atem F, Rush AJ

Abstract
Background: Lorazepam use in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is not without risk. Objective: This study compares AWS outcomes using a standard, symptom-triggered lorazepam dosing protocol (control group) and symptom-triggered lorazepam dosing augmented with a gabapentin loading dose and taper (GABA group). Methods: Consecutive, non-randomized adults (n = 982; 64.0% male) undergoing treatment for AWS were included in this retrospective, open-label study. Symptom-triggered lorazepam dosing was informed by scores on the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment-Alcohol, revised (CIWA-Ar). Gabapentin augmentation utilized an initial loading dose (900 mg) and a three-day taper. Outcomes included average symptom severity per treatment hour and average lorazepam dose per treatment hour. Average time in the protocol by group, stratified by highest CIWA-Ar score, was examined as a secondary outcome. A priori group differences were controlled statistically. Results: GABA patients were older and exhibited somewhat more severe withdrawal symptoms than controls. After controlling for confounders, gabapentin augmentation did not significantly lower average lorazepam dosing per treatment hour or withdrawal symptom severity per treatment hour. Compared to controls, overall withdrawal symptoms diminished somewhat more rapidly for GABA patients experiencing low or moderate-level withdrawal symptoms; however, severe withdrawal symptoms remitted more slowly in the GABA group. Results should be interpreted in light of the uncontrolled nature of group assignment and other confounders. Conclusions: Compared to symptom-triggered lorazepam dosing alone, gabapentin augmentation did not produce better outcomes during treatment of acute AWS. These results do not support the use of scheduled gabapentin as an augmentation to benzodiazepines during inpatient treatment of AWS.

PMID: 31490712 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

American College of Surgeons' Guidelines for the Perioperative Management of Antithrombotic Medication.

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American College of Surgeons' Guidelines for the Perioperative Management of Antithrombotic Medication.

J Am Coll Surg. 2018 11;227(5):521-536.e1

Authors: Hornor MA, Duane TM, Ehlers AP, Jensen EH, Brown PS, Pohl D, da Costa PM, Ko CY, Laronga C

PMID: 30145286 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Associations Between Race, Perceived Psychological Stress, and the Gut Microbiota in a Sample of Generally Healthy Black and White Women: A Pilot Study on the Role of Race and Perceived Psychological Stress.

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Associations Between Race, Perceived Psychological Stress, and the Gut Microbiota in a Sample of Generally Healthy Black and White Women: A Pilot Study on the Role of Race and Perceived Psychological Stress.

Psychosom Med. 2018 09;80(7):640-648

Authors: Carson TL, Wang F, Cui X, Jackson BE, Van Der Pol WJ, Lefkowitz EJ, Morrow C, Baskin ML

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Racial health disparities persist among black and white women for colorectal cancer. Understanding racial differences in the gut microbiota and related covariates (e.g., stress) may yield new insight into unexplained colorectal cancer disparities.
METHODS: Healthy non-Hispanic black or white women (age ≥19 years) provided survey data, anthropometrics, and stool samples. Fecal DNA was collected and isolated from a wipe. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the V4 region of the 16SrRNA gene and 250 bases were sequenced using the MiSeq platform. Microbiome data were analyzed using QIIME. Operational taxonomic unit data were log transformed and normalized. Analyses were conducted using linear models in R Package "limma."
RESULTS: Fecal samples were analyzed for 80 women (M (SD) age = 39.9 (14.0) years, 47 black, 33 white). Blacks had greater average body mass index (33.3 versus 27.5 kg/m, p < .01) and waist circumference (98.3 versus 86.6 cm, p = .003) than whites. Whites reported more stressful life events (p = .026) and greater distress (p = .052) than blacks. Final models accounted for these differences. There were no significant differences in dietary variables. Unadjusted comparisons revealed no racial differences in alpha diversity. Racial differences were observed in beta diversity and abundance of top 10 operational taxonomic units. Blacks had higher abundances than whites of Faecalibacterium (p = .034) and Bacteroides (p = .038). Stress was associated with abundances of Bifidobacterium. The association between race and Bacteroides (logFC = 1.72, 0 = 0.020) persisted in fully adjusted models.
CONCLUSIONS: Racial differences in the gut microbiota were observed including higher Bacteroides among blacks. Efforts to cultivate an "ideal" gut microbiota may help reduce colorectal cancer risk.

PMID: 29901485 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Participation and retention can be high in randomized controlled trials targeting underserved populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Participation and retention can be high in randomized controlled trials targeting underserved populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Clin Epidemiol. 2018 06;98:154-157

Authors: Ojha RP, Jackson BE, Lu Y, Burton M, Blair SE, MacDonald BR, Chu TC, Teigen KJ, Acosta M

PMID: 29183689 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Fixed-dose gabapentin augmentation in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome: a retrospective, open-label study.

Fixed-dose gabapentin augmentation in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome: a retrospective, open-label study.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2019 Sep 06;:1-9

Authors: Andaluz A, DeMoss D, Claassen C, Blair S, Hsu J, Bakre S, Khan M, Atem F, Rush AJ

Abstract
Background: Lorazepam use in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is not without risk. Objective: This study compares AWS outcomes using a standard, symptom-triggered lorazepam dosing protocol (control group) and symptom-triggered lorazepam dosing augmented with a gabapentin loading dose and taper (GABA group). Methods: Consecutive, non-randomized adults (n = 982; 64.0% male) undergoing treatment for AWS were included in this retrospective, open-label study. Symptom-triggered lorazepam dosing was informed by scores on the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment-Alcohol, revised (CIWA-Ar). Gabapentin augmentation utilized an initial loading dose (900 mg) and a three-day taper. Outcomes included average symptom severity per treatment hour and average lorazepam dose per treatment hour. Average time in the protocol by group, stratified by highest CIWA-Ar score, was examined as a secondary outcome. A priori group differences were controlled statistically. Results: GABA patients were older and exhibited somewhat more severe withdrawal symptoms than controls. After controlling for confounders, gabapentin augmentation did not significantly lower average lorazepam dosing per treatment hour or withdrawal symptom severity per treatment hour. Compared to controls, overall withdrawal symptoms diminished somewhat more rapidly for GABA patients experiencing low or moderate-level withdrawal symptoms; however, severe withdrawal symptoms remitted more slowly in the GABA group. Results should be interpreted in light of the uncontrolled nature of group assignment and other confounders. Conclusions: Compared to symptom-triggered lorazepam dosing alone, gabapentin augmentation did not produce better outcomes during treatment of acute AWS. These results do not support the use of scheduled gabapentin as an augmentation to benzodiazepines during inpatient treatment of AWS.

PMID: 31490712 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Addition of Advanced Practice Registered Nurses to the Trauma Team: An Integrative Systematic Review of Literature.

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Addition of Advanced Practice Registered Nurses to the Trauma Team: An Integrative Systematic Review of Literature.

J Trauma Nurs. 2019 May/Jun;26(3):141-146

Authors: Crawford CC

Abstract
The total cost of inpatient care from a traumatic mechanism of injury in the United States between 2001 and 2011 was $240.7 billion. Medical resident work hour reductions mandated in 2011 left a shortage of available in-hospital providers to care for trauma patients. This created gaps in continuity of care, which can lead to costly increased lengths of stay (LOS) and increased medical errors. Adding advanced practice nurses (APNs) specializing in acute or trauma care to the trauma team may help fill this shortage in trauma care providers. The purpose of this integrative systematic review of the literature was to determine whether adding APNs to the admitting trauma team would decrease LOS. A systematic review of primary research in CINAHL and PubMed databases was performed using the following terms: nurse practitioner, advanced practice nurse, trauma team, and length of stay. Included studies examined the effects of adding APNs to trauma teams, were written in English, and were published in 2007-2017. Six studies were included in the final sample, and all were completed at Level I trauma centers in the United States except one from Canada. Combined sample size was 25,083 admitted trauma patients. All 6 studies reported a decrease in LOS ranging from 0.8 to 2.54 days when APNs were added to the trauma team. More research is needed to identify the best utilization of an APN on a trauma team. It is recommended that all trauma centers add APNs to the trauma team to not only decrease admitted trauma patients' LOS but also provide continuity of care, decreasing costs, and minimizing errors.

PMID: 31483771 [PubMed - in process]

Civilian Prehospital Tourniquet Use Is Associated with Improved Survival in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Injury.

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Civilian Prehospital Tourniquet Use Is Associated with Improved Survival in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Injury.

J Am Coll Surg. 2018 05;226(5):769-776.e1

Authors: Teixeira PGR, Brown CVR, Emigh B, Long M, Foreman M, Eastridge B, Gale S, Truitt MS, Dissanaike S, Duane T, Holcomb J, Eastman A, Regner J, Texas Tourniquet Study Group

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Tourniquet use has been proven to reduce mortality on the battlefield. Although empirically transitioned to the civilian environment, data substantiating survival benefit attributable to civilian tourniquet use is lacking. We hypothesized that civilian prehospital tourniquet use is associated with reduced mortality in patients with peripheral vascular injuries.
STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a multicenter retrospective review of all patients sustaining peripheral vascular injuries admitted to 11 Level I trauma centers (January 2011 through December 2016). The study population was divided into 2 groups based on prehospital tourniquet use. Baseline characteristics were compared and factors associated with mortality identified. Logistic regression, adjusting for demographic, physiologic and injury-related parameters, was used to evaluate the association between prehospital tourniquet use and mortality. Delayed amputation was the secondary end point.
RESULTS: During 6 years, 1,026 patients with peripheral vascular injuries were admitted. Prehospital tourniquets were used in 181 (17.6%) patients. Tourniquet time averaged 77.3 ± 63.3 minutes (interquartile range 39.0 to 92.3 minutes). Traumatic amputations occurred in 98 patients (35.7% had a tourniquet). Mortality was 5.2% in the non-tourniquet group compared with 3.9% in the tourniquet group (odds ratio 1.36; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.65; p = 0.452). After multivariable analysis, the use of tourniquets was found to be independently associated with survival (adjusted odds ratio 5.86; 95% CI 1.41 to 24.47; adjusted p = 0.015). Delayed amputation rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups (1.1% vs 1.1%; adjusted odds ratio 1.82; 95% CI 0.36 to 9.99; adjusted p = 0.473).
CONCLUSIONS: Although still underused, civilian prehospital tourniquet application was independently associated with a 6-fold mortality reduction in patients with peripheral vascular injuries. More aggressive prehospital application of extremity tourniquets in civilian trauma patients with extremity hemorrhage and traumatic amputation is warranted.

PMID: 29605726 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Women in Podiatry and Medicine.

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Women in Podiatry and Medicine.

Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2019 Oct;36(4):707-716

Authors: Brower BA, Jennings MM, Butterworth ML, Crawford ME

Abstract
The role of female physicians has advanced among western medicine. Women now constitute a majority within medical schools, and the number of women in podiatric medicine and surgery has increased over the last 5 decades. Conversely, female physicians continue to face barriers to closing the gender gap. They have lower academic standings and fewer publications, receive less awards/grants, are underrepresented in leadership positions, have a lower incidence pursuing surgical specialties, and receive lower compensation. Women experience an increased rate of burnout, gender discrimination, and sexual harassment. Increasing awareness of the gender gap is vital to the enhancement of the medical community.

PMID: 31466577 [PubMed - in process]

American Association of Kidney Patients survey of patient preferences for hemodialysis vascular access.

Saravanan Balamuthusamy, MD - Fri, 08/30/2019 - 09:31
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American Association of Kidney Patients survey of patient preferences for hemodialysis vascular access.

J Vasc Access. 2019 Aug 29;:1129729819870962

Authors: Balamuthusamy S, Miller LE, Clynes D, Kahle E, Knight RA, Conway PT

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the vascular access modalities used for hemodialysis, the reasons for choosing them, and determinants of satisfaction with vascular access among patients with end-stage renal disease.
METHODS: The American Association of Kidney Patients Center for Patient Research and Education used the American Association of Kidney Patients patient engagement database to identify eligible adult hemodialysis patients. Participants completed an online survey consisting of 34 demographic, medical history, and hemodialysis history questions to determine which vascular access modalities were preferred and the reasons for these preferences.
RESULTS: Among 150 respondents (mean age 54 years, 53% females), hemodialysis was most frequently initiated with central venous catheter (64%) while the most common currently used vascular access was arteriovenous fistula (66%). Most (86%) patients previously received an arteriovenous fistula, among whom 77% currently used the arteriovenous fistula for vascular access. Older patients and males were more likely to initiate hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula. The factors most frequently reported as important in influencing the selection of vascular access modality included infection risk (87%), physician recommendation (84%), vascular access durability (78%), risk of complications involving surgery (76%), and impact on daily activities (73%); these factors were influenced by patient age, sex, and race. Satisfaction with current vascular access was 90% with arteriovenous fistula, 79% with arteriovenous graft, and 67% with central venous catheter.
CONCLUSION: Most end-stage renal disease patients continue to initiate hemodialysis with central venous catheter despite being associated with the lowest satisfaction rates. While arteriovenous fistula was associated with the highest satisfaction rate, there are significant barriers to adoption that vary based on patient demographics and perception of procedure invasiveness.

PMID: 31464539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Postpartum Depression.

Katherine Buck, PhD - Fri, 08/23/2019 - 07:53
Related Articles

Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Postpartum Depression.

Am Fam Physician. 2019 Aug 15;100(4):244-245

Authors: Buck K, Zekri S, Nguyen L, Ogar UJ

PMID: 31414780 [PubMed - in process]

Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Postpartum Depression.

Related Articles

Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Postpartum Depression.

Am Fam Physician. 2019 Aug 15;100(4):244-245

Authors: Buck K, Zekri S, Nguyen L, Ogar UJ

PMID: 31414780 [PubMed - in process]

Comparison of pharmacy students' self-efficacy to address cessation counseling needs for traditional and electronic cigarette use.

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Comparison of pharmacy students' self-efficacy to address cessation counseling needs for traditional and electronic cigarette use.

Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2018 07;10(7):955-963

Authors: Nduaguba SO, Ford KH, Bamgbade BA, Ubanyionwu O

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study assessed pharmacy students' self-rated ability to provide cessation counseling for e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking.
EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study was conducted in spring 2014 at The University of Texas at Austin. Participants included first through fourth year (P1-P4) doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students. Perceived confidence and knowledge to counsel on cigarette smoking cessation and e-cigarette cessation were self-rated and based on the Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-and Arrange (5 A's) follow-up model as well as general counseling skills for recreational nicotine product use cessation. Comparisons were made between students' confidence to counsel patients on traditional cigarette smoking cessation and e-cigarette cessation and by class level.
FINDINGS: Compared to cigarette smoking cessation counseling, students were less confident in their ability to counsel on e-cigarette cessation using the 5 A's model and general counseling skills. Students perceived themselves to be less knowledgeable about the harmful effects of e-cigarettes, pharmacists' role in counseling on e-cigarette cessation, and how patients can benefit from e-cigarette cessation counseling. A higher proportion of students reported having no training on e-cigarette cessation compared to cigarette smoking cessation (59% vs 9%).
SUMMARY: Targeted training on how to counsel patients on e-cigarette cessation should be included in pharmacy curricula. Such training is expected to increase the confidence of pharmacists-in-training to address the needs of patients who use e-cigarettes.

PMID: 30236434 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Novel Investigation of the Deep Band of the Lateral Plantar Aponeurosis and Its Relationship With the Lateral Plantar Nerve.

Travis Motley, DPM - Fri, 08/09/2019 - 04:04
Related Articles

Novel Investigation of the Deep Band of the Lateral Plantar Aponeurosis and Its Relationship With the Lateral Plantar Nerve.

Foot Ankle Int. 2019 Aug 06;:1071100719864352

Authors: Beck CM, Dickerson AR, Kadado KJ, Cohen ZA, Blair SE, Motley TA, Holcomb JC, Fisher CL

Abstract
BACKGROUND: We describe a thick fascial band arising from the medial aspect of the lateral plantar aponeurosis diving deep into the forefoot crossing over a branch of the lateral plantar nerve. Because a review of current literature resulted in limited and outdated sources, we sought to first determine the frequency of this fascial band and the location where it crosses the lateral plantar nerve and, second, discuss the clinical applications these anatomical findings could have.
METHODS: 50 pairs of cadaveric feet (n = 100) were dissected to investigate for presence of the fascial band and its interaction with the lateral plantar nerve. Images were taken of each foot with the fascial band. ImageJ was used to take 2 measurements assessing the relationship of the tuberosity of the base of the fifth metatarsal to where the nerve crossed deep to the fascial band.
RESULTS: Overall, 38% of the feet possessed the fascial band. It was found unilaterally in 10 pairs and bilaterally in 14 pairs. On average, the point at which the lateral plantar nerve passed deep to the fascial band was 2.0 cm medial and 1.7 cm anterior to the tuberosity of the base of the fifth metatarsal.
CONCLUSION: When present, the deep band of the lateral plantar aponeurosis (PA) was consistently found to be crossing the lateral plantar nerve. The discovery of the location where this most commonly occurs has not been previously reported and adds an interesting dimension that elevates an anatomical study to one that has clinical potential.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The established target zone gives a precise location for where the relationship between the deep band of the lateral PA and the lateral plantar nerve exists when evaluating the foot. The target zone provides a potential springboard for future investigations concerning said relationship clinically.

PMID: 31387386 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Financial Incentives to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Longitudinal Randomized Control Trial.

Mark Koch, MD - Fri, 08/09/2019 - 04:04
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Financial Incentives to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Longitudinal Randomized Control Trial.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2019 Aug 06;:

Authors: Lieberman A, Gneezy A, Berry E, Miller S, Koch M, Ahn C, Balasubramanian BA, Argenbright KE, Gupta S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Financial incentives may improve health behaviors. We tested the impact of offering financial incentives for mailed fecal immunochemical test (FIT) completion annually for three years.
METHODS: Patients, aged 50-64 years, not up-to-date with screening were randomized to receive either a mailed FIT outreach (n=6,565), outreach plus $5 (n=1,000), or $10 (n=1,000) incentive for completion. Patients who completed the test were re-invited using the same incentive the following year, for 3 years. In Year 4, patients who returned the kit in all preceding three years were re-invited without incentives. Primary outcome was FIT completion among patients offered any incentive versus outreach alone each year. Secondary outcomes were FIT completion for groups offered $5 vs. outreach alone, $10 vs. outreach alone, and $5 vs. $10.
RESULTS: Year 1 FIT completion was 36.9% with incentives vs. 36.2% outreach alone (P=0.59) and was not statistically different for $10 (34.6%; P=0.31) or $5 (39.2%; P=0.070) vs. outreach alone. Year 2 completion was 61.6% with incentives vs. 60.8% outreach alone (P=0.75) and not statistically different for $10 or $5 vs. outreach alone. Year 3 completion was 79.4% with incentives vs. 74.8% outreach alone (P=0.080), and was higher for $10 (82.4%) vs. outreach alone (P=.033), but not for $5 vs. outreach alone. Completion was similar across conditions in Year 4 (no incentives).
CONCLUSIONS: Offering small incentives did not increase FIT completion relative to standard outreach.
IMPACT: This was the first longitudinal study testing the impact of repeated financial incentives, and their withdrawal, on FIT completion.

PMID: 31387970 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Financial Incentives to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Longitudinal Randomized Control Trial.

Related Articles

Financial Incentives to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Longitudinal Randomized Control Trial.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2019 Aug 06;:

Authors: Lieberman A, Gneezy A, Berry E, Miller S, Koch M, Ahn C, Balasubramanian BA, Argenbright KE, Gupta S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Financial incentives may improve health behaviors. We tested the impact of offering financial incentives for mailed fecal immunochemical test (FIT) completion annually for three years.
METHODS: Patients, aged 50-64 years, not up-to-date with screening were randomized to receive either a mailed FIT outreach (n=6,565), outreach plus $5 (n=1,000), or $10 (n=1,000) incentive for completion. Patients who completed the test were re-invited using the same incentive the following year, for 3 years. In Year 4, patients who returned the kit in all preceding three years were re-invited without incentives. Primary outcome was FIT completion among patients offered any incentive versus outreach alone each year. Secondary outcomes were FIT completion for groups offered $5 vs. outreach alone, $10 vs. outreach alone, and $5 vs. $10.
RESULTS: Year 1 FIT completion was 36.9% with incentives vs. 36.2% outreach alone (P=0.59) and was not statistically different for $10 (34.6%; P=0.31) or $5 (39.2%; P=0.070) vs. outreach alone. Year 2 completion was 61.6% with incentives vs. 60.8% outreach alone (P=0.75) and not statistically different for $10 or $5 vs. outreach alone. Year 3 completion was 79.4% with incentives vs. 74.8% outreach alone (P=0.080), and was higher for $10 (82.4%) vs. outreach alone (P=.033), but not for $5 vs. outreach alone. Completion was similar across conditions in Year 4 (no incentives).
CONCLUSIONS: Offering small incentives did not increase FIT completion relative to standard outreach.
IMPACT: This was the first longitudinal study testing the impact of repeated financial incentives, and their withdrawal, on FIT completion.

PMID: 31387970 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Novel Investigation of the Deep Band of the Lateral Plantar Aponeurosis and Its Relationship With the Lateral Plantar Nerve.

Related Articles

Novel Investigation of the Deep Band of the Lateral Plantar Aponeurosis and Its Relationship With the Lateral Plantar Nerve.

Foot Ankle Int. 2019 Aug 06;:1071100719864352

Authors: Beck CM, Dickerson AR, Kadado KJ, Cohen ZA, Blair SE, Motley TA, Holcomb JC, Fisher CL

Abstract
BACKGROUND: We describe a thick fascial band arising from the medial aspect of the lateral plantar aponeurosis diving deep into the forefoot crossing over a branch of the lateral plantar nerve. Because a review of current literature resulted in limited and outdated sources, we sought to first determine the frequency of this fascial band and the location where it crosses the lateral plantar nerve and, second, discuss the clinical applications these anatomical findings could have.
METHODS: 50 pairs of cadaveric feet (n = 100) were dissected to investigate for presence of the fascial band and its interaction with the lateral plantar nerve. Images were taken of each foot with the fascial band. ImageJ was used to take 2 measurements assessing the relationship of the tuberosity of the base of the fifth metatarsal to where the nerve crossed deep to the fascial band.
RESULTS: Overall, 38% of the feet possessed the fascial band. It was found unilaterally in 10 pairs and bilaterally in 14 pairs. On average, the point at which the lateral plantar nerve passed deep to the fascial band was 2.0 cm medial and 1.7 cm anterior to the tuberosity of the base of the fifth metatarsal.
CONCLUSION: When present, the deep band of the lateral plantar aponeurosis (PA) was consistently found to be crossing the lateral plantar nerve. The discovery of the location where this most commonly occurs has not been previously reported and adds an interesting dimension that elevates an anatomical study to one that has clinical potential.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The established target zone gives a precise location for where the relationship between the deep band of the lateral PA and the lateral plantar nerve exists when evaluating the foot. The target zone provides a potential springboard for future investigations concerning said relationship clinically.

PMID: 31387386 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Emergency Medicine Resident Efficiency and Emergency Department Crowding.

Richard Robinson, MD - Fri, 08/02/2019 - 04:01
Related Articles

Emergency Medicine Resident Efficiency and Emergency Department Crowding.

AEM Educ Train. 2019 Jul;3(3):209-217

Authors: Kirby R, Robinson RD, Dib S, Mclarty D, Shaikh S, Cheeti R, Ho AF, Schrader CD, Zenarosa NR, Wang H

Abstract
Objectives: Provider efficiency has been reported in the literature but there is a lack of efficiency analysis among emergency medicine (EM) residents. We aim to compare efficiency of EM residents of different training levels and determine if EM resident efficiency is affected by emergency department (ED) crowding.
Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective observation study from July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2017. The number of new patients per resident per hour and provider-to-disposition (PTD) time of each patient were used as resident efficiency markers. A crowding score was assigned to each patient upon the patient's arrival to the ED. We compared efficiency among EM residents of different training levels under different ED crowding statuses. Dynamic efficiency changes were compared monthly through the entire academic year (July to next June).
Results: The study enrolled a total of 150,920 patients. A mean of 1.9 patients/hour was seen by PGY-1 EM residents in comparison to 2.6 patients/hour by PGY-2 and -3 EM residents. Median PTD was 2.8 hours in PGY-1 EM residents versus 2.6 hours in PGY-2 and -3 EM residents. There were no significant differences in acuity across all patients seen by EM residents. When crowded conditions existed, residency efficiency increased, but such changes were minimized when the ED became overcrowded. A linear increase of resident efficiency was observed only in PGY-1 EM residents throughout the entire academic year.
Conclusion: Resident efficiency improved significantly only during their first year of EM training. This efficiency can be affected by ED crowding.

PMID: 31360813 [PubMed]

Emergency Medicine Resident Efficiency and Emergency Department Crowding.

Hao Wang, MD - Fri, 08/02/2019 - 04:01
Related Articles

Emergency Medicine Resident Efficiency and Emergency Department Crowding.

AEM Educ Train. 2019 Jul;3(3):209-217

Authors: Kirby R, Robinson RD, Dib S, Mclarty D, Shaikh S, Cheeti R, Ho AF, Schrader CD, Zenarosa NR, Wang H

Abstract
Objectives: Provider efficiency has been reported in the literature but there is a lack of efficiency analysis among emergency medicine (EM) residents. We aim to compare efficiency of EM residents of different training levels and determine if EM resident efficiency is affected by emergency department (ED) crowding.
Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective observation study from July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2017. The number of new patients per resident per hour and provider-to-disposition (PTD) time of each patient were used as resident efficiency markers. A crowding score was assigned to each patient upon the patient's arrival to the ED. We compared efficiency among EM residents of different training levels under different ED crowding statuses. Dynamic efficiency changes were compared monthly through the entire academic year (July to next June).
Results: The study enrolled a total of 150,920 patients. A mean of 1.9 patients/hour was seen by PGY-1 EM residents in comparison to 2.6 patients/hour by PGY-2 and -3 EM residents. Median PTD was 2.8 hours in PGY-1 EM residents versus 2.6 hours in PGY-2 and -3 EM residents. There were no significant differences in acuity across all patients seen by EM residents. When crowded conditions existed, residency efficiency increased, but such changes were minimized when the ED became overcrowded. A linear increase of resident efficiency was observed only in PGY-1 EM residents throughout the entire academic year.
Conclusion: Resident efficiency improved significantly only during their first year of EM training. This efficiency can be affected by ED crowding.

PMID: 31360813 [PubMed]

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